Table 1: Preliminary factors facilitating the development of a green energy industry.

Assessment aspectsDevelopment factorsExplanation of development factorsReferences

Technology ( )Establishment of key technological capabilities ( )Key technologies are important elements in the development of factors of production, and key technological capabilities constitute strategic assets. If key technological systems can be integrated successfully, industrial cooperation mechanisms can industrialize and commercialize key technologies, changing the industry structure and enhancing competitive advantage.[1, 12]
Protection of intellectual property ( )The protection of intellectual property rights will ensure that creators of intellectual property can enjoy the fruits of their innovations and will encourage the creation of even more intellectual property, which will have a positive effect on socioeconomic development and allow other members of the public to benefit from the intellectual property. The development of a green energy industry must rely on the patenting of inventions to promote technological autonomy and ensure that companies can securely transfer their technologies, facilitating the industry's development.[1, 4]
Cultivation of green energy industry manpower ( )Personnel possessing technical knowledge play an extremely important role in the ceaseless process of innovation and improving competitiveness in the green energy industry. Via the establishment of laboratory system mechanisms, the provision of a secure environment can attract overseas manpower and ultimately enhance international competitiveness. Upgrading the green energy industry in the future must be accompanied by the constant training of industrial manpower, which will support the industry's future development and promote the industry's sustainable development.[1, 12]

Investment ( )Establishment of an industry chain ( )Many problems will emerge during the intensely competitive process of industrial development. From a long-range perspective, only the establishment of an effective, well-integrated industry chain can boost the effectiveness and strength of the industry chain as a whole, enhancing the industry's competitive advantage.[4, 12]
Key raw materials and production equipment ( )Investment in the development of key raw materials is extremely important if it is desired to produce superior green energy products. If Taiwan cannot provide an adequate supply of key raw materials and elements, this will be equivalent to control by foreign firms and will restrict the industry's future development. Conversely, if key raw materials and production equipment can be marketed internationally, this will boost the value of the industry's products and provide more employment opportunities in the industry.[4, 8, 12]
Promotion of relevant investments in the industry ( )The green energy industry is a technology- and capital-intensive industry and requires interdisciplinary manpower. In order to lengthen the green energy product life cycle, firms must invest in the industry's suppliers, and the industry's development must be well integrated, which will expand domestic industrial activity and promote industrial investment, leading to a clustering effect and enhancing the green energy industry's international competitiveness.[1, 4]

Government policy ( ) Degree of integration of relevant laws and regulations ( )If green energy industrial development laws and regulations can integrate the perspectives of manufacturers, customers, and other interested parties and ensure that all interested parties believe that the government's laws and regulations can effectively promote the development of green energy industry, then interested parties will be even more willing to invest in the development of green energy products. In particular, when products are sold globally, testing and certification in Taiwan should be consistent with international standards. And, to avoid restricting the industry's development, the government should strive to integrate laws and regulations while maintaining an emphasis on deregulation.[1, 12]
Effective and convenient corporate incentive measures ( )When the firms in industry clusters form mutually beneficial relationships, relevant economic factors of production (such as technology, manpower, information, and funds) will accumulate continuously. When the government has effective and convenient corporate encouragement measures, this will have a positive effect on clustering of the industry and will enhance the competitiveness of the industry as a whole.[1, 4, 12]
Preferential purchase price rates and various subsidies ( )To encourage the development of zero-pollution green energy, government policies must provide purchase prices offering sufficient incentive and must also provide incentive measures (such as subsidies and tariff exemptions) in order to promote the creation of a renewable energy market.[1, 3, 4, 8]

Environment ( )Establishment of international certification laboratories ( )In order to provide the green energy industry with comprehensive technical support encompassing the areas of quality, performance, safety, and transactions and thereby enhance the international competitive advantage of the industry and its technology, companies must support the adoption of international certification technology. The establishment of an international certification laboratory framework can help companies to enhance quality, strengthen product quality and differentiation, accelerate mass production and value-adding capacity, and boost the industry's competitiveness.[9, 13]
Shaping of the green energy environment; creation of demand ( )The government should shape an environment in which the green energy industry can develop and create domestic and foreign demand. In the domestic market, the government can expand the application of green energy products in public development projects or increase its purchases of green energy products. As for expansion of foreign markets, the signing of international accreditation and certification protocols and mutual authorization, can reduce companies' trade costs, enhancing the competitiveness of the green energy industry.[1, 35, 12, 14, 15]
Creating a sustainable development environment for green energy ( )The core spirit of green energy is sustainability. Through the environmental sustainability concept, the combination of environmental conservation and education can induce relevant interested parties in the green industry chain (such as manufacturers, consumers, and government) to collectively realize environmental sustainability (in education, environmental protection, and transportation), establishing a sustainable green energy environment.[1, 5, 14, 15]

Market ( )Identification with green market values ( )Green marketing has arisen in the wake of green consumerism. In particular, in international marketing activities, in order to promote the development of international trade, it is also necessary to protect the environment. It is therefore necessary to make consumers aware of the importance of green consumerism and foster a consensus to protect the environment. These concepts will establish green market values in the minds of consumers, give green energy products a superior impression, and enhance companies' image.[2, 7, 16]
Size of market and stability ( )The size and stability of the consumer market are important factors affecting whether green energy product sales channels can be developed. Because government policy directions and consumer purchasing behavior can influence the size of the green energy market and consumer confidence, there should be a balance between green energy supply and demand as much as possible.[6, 12]
Strengthening economic cooperation in the international market ( )The green energy industry is a global industry, and the industry and government should therefore strive to resolve asymmetric trade barriers between trading partners and strengthen firms understanding of foreign markets, which will help firms to respond to and strengthen risk control, expand green energy products market channels, and enhance domestic firms' ability to operate in international markets.[12, 17]

The code names of each assessment aspect and development factor are shown in parentheses.