Table 3: Perceptual relative errors in first frequtency and in maximum bending displacement with Monte Carlo, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Genetic Algorithm methods.

Optimization methodSquare plateCylindrical panelConical shellToroidal shell panelCatenoidal panelElliptic paraboloid

MC−1.261−0.4312.884−1.0760.5340.8991.665−0.786
GA0.0240.1880.070−0.029−0.0530.0370.1190.010
PSO−0.0160.0590.118−0.0460.008−0.0740.049−0.042