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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 426234, 17 pages
Research Article

Hybrid Particle and Kalman Filtering for Pupil Tracking in Active IR Illumination Gaze Tracking System

1School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2Key Laboratory of Operation Safety Technology on Transport Vehicles, Ministry of Transport, Beijing 100088, China
3School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798

Received 19 February 2014; Revised 26 June 2014; Accepted 1 July 2014; Published 30 September 2014

Academic Editor: Yi Chen

Copyright © 2014 Jian-nan Chi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A novel pupil tracking method is proposed by combining particle filtering and Kalman filtering for the fast and accurate detection of pupil target in an active infrared source gaze tracking system. Firstly, we utilize particle filtering to track pupil in synthesis triple-channel color map (STCCM) for the fast detection and develop a comprehensive pupil motion model to conduct and analyze the randomness of pupil motion. Moreover, we built a pupil observational model based on the similarity measurement with generated histogram to improve the credibility of particle weights. Particle filtering can detect pupil region in adjacent frames rapidly. Secondly, we adopted Kalman filtering to estimate the pupil parameters more precisely. The state transitional equation of the Kalman filtering is determined by the particle filtering estimation, and the observation of the Kalman filtering is dependent on the detected pupil parameters in the corresponding region of difference images estimated by particle filtering. Tracking results of Kalman filtering are the final pupil target parameters. Experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of this method.