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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 638174, 12 pages
Research Article

A Robust Fractal Color Image Watermarking Algorithm

College of Mathematics and Computational Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China

Received 23 September 2013; Accepted 16 December 2013; Published 2 March 2014

Academic Editor: Yuncai Wang

Copyright © 2014 Jian Lu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


One of the main objectives of watermarking is to achieve a better tradeoff between robustness and high visual quality of a host image. In recent years, there has been a significant development in gray-level image watermarking using fractal-based method. This paper presents a human visual system (HVS) based fractal watermarking method for color images. In the proposed method, a color pixel is considered as a 3-D vector in RGB space. And a general form of 3 × 3 matrix is utilized as the scaling operator. Meanwhile, the luminance offset vector is substituted by the range block mean vector. Then an orthogonalization fractal color coding method is achieved to obtain very high image quality. We also show that the orthogonalization fractal color decoding is a mean vector-invariant iteration. So, the range block mean vector is a good place for hiding watermark. Furthermore, for consistency with the characteristics of the HVS, we carry out the embedding process in the CIE space and incorporate a just noticeable difference (JND) profile to ensure the watermark invisibility. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good robustness against various typical attacks, at the same time, with an imperceptible change in image quality.