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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 761403, 14 pages
Research Article

A Novel Adaptive Elite-Based Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to VAR Optimization in Electric Power Systems

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li City 320, Taiwan
2Department of Electrical Engineering, National Central University, Chung Li City 320, Taiwan
3Department of Applied Electronics Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 320, Taiwan

Received 5 February 2014; Accepted 30 March 2014; Published 22 May 2014

Academic Editor: Ker-Wei Yu

Copyright © 2014 Ying-Yi Hong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been successfully applied to solve many practical engineering problems. However, more efficient strategies are needed to coordinate global and local searches in the solution space when the studied problem is extremely nonlinear and highly dimensional. This work proposes a novel adaptive elite-based PSO approach. The adaptive elite strategies involve the following two tasks: (1) appending the mean search to the original approach and (2) pruning/cloning particles. The mean search, leading to stable convergence, helps the iterative process coordinate between the global and local searches. The mean of the particles and standard deviation of the distances between pairs of particles are utilized to prune distant particles. The best particle is cloned and it replaces the pruned distant particles in the elite strategy. To evaluate the performance and generality of the proposed method, four benchmark functions were tested by traditional PSO, chaotic PSO, differential evolution, and genetic algorithm. Finally, a realistic loss minimization problem in an electric power system is studied to show the robustness of the proposed method.