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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2015, Article ID 194532, 11 pages
Research Article

Energy Aware Simple Ant Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

1Department of Computer Science, Bahria University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
3King Saud University, P.O. Box 92144, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4School of Computer Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Republic of Korea
5College of Computer and Information Systems, Al Yamamah University, P.O. Box 45180, Riyadh 11512, Saudi Arabia
6School of Computing and Mathematics, Charles Sturt University, Boorooma Street, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia

Received 1 October 2014; Accepted 23 December 2014

Academic Editor: Bo-Wei Chen

Copyright © 2015 Sohail Jabbar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Network lifetime is one of the most prominent barriers in deploying wireless sensor networks for large-scale applications because these networks employ sensors with nonrenewable scarce energy resources. Sensor nodes dissipate most of their energy in complex routing mechanisms. To cope with limited energy problem, we present EASARA, an energy aware simple ant routing algorithm based on ant colony optimization. Unlike most algorithms, EASARA strives to avoid low energy routes and optimizes the routing process through selection of least hop count path with more energy. It consists of three phases, that is, route discovery, forwarding node, and route selection. We have improved the route discovery procedure and mainly concentrate on energy efficient forwarding node and route selection, so that the network lifetime can be prolonged. The four possible cases of forwarding node and route selection are presented. The performance of EASARA is validated through simulation. Simulation results demonstrate the performance supremacy of EASARA over contemporary scheme in terms of various metrics.