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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 512158, 9 pages
Research Article

Landslide Occurrence Prediction Using Trainable Cascade Forward Network and Multilayer Perceptron

1Department of Software Engineering, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, Jadara University, Irbid 2001, Jordan
2School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
3School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11600 Penang, Malaysia

Received 28 September 2014; Revised 18 December 2014; Accepted 25 December 2014

Academic Editor: Yudong Zhang

Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Subhi Al-batah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Landslides are one of the dangerous natural phenomena that hinder the development in Penang Island, Malaysia. Therefore, finding the reliable method to predict the occurrence of landslides is still the research of interest. In this paper, two models of artificial neural network, namely, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Cascade Forward Neural Network (CFNN), are introduced to predict the landslide hazard map of Penang Island. These two models were tested and compared using eleven machine learning algorithms, that is, Levenberg Marquardt, Broyden Fletcher Goldfarb, Resilient Back Propagation, Scaled Conjugate Gradient, Conjugate Gradient with Beale, Conjugate Gradient with Fletcher Reeves updates, Conjugate Gradient with Polakribiere updates, One Step Secant, Gradient Descent, Gradient Descent with Momentum and Adaptive Learning Rate, and Gradient Descent with Momentum algorithm. Often, the performance of the landslide prediction depends on the input factors beside the prediction method. In this research work, 14 input factors were used. The prediction accuracies of networks were verified using the Area under the Curve method for the Receiver Operating Characteristics. The results indicated that the best prediction accuracy of 82.89% was achieved using the CFNN network with the Levenberg Marquardt learning algorithm for the training data set and 81.62% for the testing data set.