Mathematical Problems in Engineering / 2015 / Article / Fig 1

Research Article

Collapsed Shape of Shallow Unlined Tunnels Based on Functional Catastrophe Theory

Figure 1

Some examples of daylight collapse induced by shallow tunneling.
(a) Munich in Germany, 1994
(b) Taegu in South Korea, 2004
(c) Lausanne in Switzerland, 2005
(d) Chengdu in China, 2007

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