Mathematical Problems in Engineering / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Collapsed Shape of Shallow Unlined Tunnels Based on Functional Catastrophe Theory

Table 1

Potential functions used in ECT.

NamePotential functionState variableControl variable

Fold
Cusp
Swallowtail
Butterfly
Indian tent
Elliptic umbilic
Hyperbolic umbilic
Parabolic umbilic
Symbolic umbilic
Second hyperbolic umbilic
Second elliptic umbilic

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