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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2015, Article ID 790139, 10 pages
Research Article

Perturbation to Noether Symmetries and Adiabatic Invariants for Birkhoffian Systems

College of Civil Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215011, China

Received 4 January 2015; Revised 26 April 2015; Accepted 30 April 2015

Academic Editor: Jun-Juh Yan

Copyright © 2015 Yi Zhang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Based on El-Nabulsi dynamical model for a non-conservative system, the problem of perturbation to Noether symmetries and adiabatic invariants of a Birkhoffian system under the action of a small disturbance is proposed and studied. Firstly, the El-Nabulsi-Pfaff variational problem from extended exponentially fractional integral is presented and the El-Nabulsi-Birkhoff equations are established. Secondly, the definitions and the criterions criteria of the Noether symmetric transformations and quasisymmetric transformations of the Birkhoffian system are given, and the Noether theorems of the system are established, which reveal the inner relationship between the Noether symmetries and the conserved quantities. Thirdly, the perturbation of Noether symmetries under a small disturbance is studied, and corresponding adiabatic invariants are obtained. As special cases, the deductions in nonconservative Hamiltonian system and nonconservative Lagrangian system and standard Birkhoffian system are given. At the end of the paper, the case known as Hojman-Urrutia problem is discussed to investigate the Noether symmetries and the adiabatic invariants, the perturbation to Noether symmetries and the adiabatic invariants under El-Nabulsi dynamical model.