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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2016, Article ID 1495732, 15 pages
Research Article

An Integrated Optimal Energy Management/Gear-Shifting Strategy for an Electric Continuously Variable Transmission Hybrid Powertrain Using Bacterial Foraging Algorithm

1Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
2Department of Industrial Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
3Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 63201, Taiwan

Received 17 June 2016; Revised 10 August 2016; Accepted 16 August 2016

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Vairo

Copyright © 2016 Syuan-Yi Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study developed an integrated energy management/gear-shifting strategy by using a bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA) in an engine/motor hybrid powertrain with electric continuously variable transmission. A control-oriented vehicle model was constructed on the Matlab/Simulink platform for further integration with developed control strategies. A baseline control strategy with four modes was developed for comparison with the proposed BFA. The BFA was used with five bacterial populations to search for the optimal gear ratio and power-split ratio for minimizing the cost: the equivalent fuel consumption. Three main procedures were followed: chemotaxis, reproduction, and elimination-dispersal. After the vehicle model was integrated with the vehicle control unit with the BFA, two driving patterns, the New European Driving Cycle and the Federal Test Procedure, were used to evaluate the energy consumption improvement and equivalent fuel consumption compared with the baseline. The results show that and were improved for the optimal energy management and integrated optimization at the first and second driving cycles, respectively. Real-time platform designs and vehicle integration for a dynamometer test will be investigated in the future.