Table 2: Robustness analysis under ±10% in the gain and delay: the distillation column with input delays.

Tuning method The distillation column with input delays (+10%) The distillation column with input delays (−10%)
Set-pointDisturbanceSet-pointDisturbance
IAETVIAETVIAETVIAETV

Proposed166.1760.42453.1419.77189.3411.97371.2315.83
PI controller457.451.821366.106.69537.841.8011185.18