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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2017, Article ID 1387375, 14 pages
Research Article

A New Reversible Database Watermarking Approach with Firefly Optimization Algorithm

Department of Computer Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey

Correspondence should be addressed to Mustafa Bilgehan Imamoglu; rt.ude.utk@naheglib

Received 5 September 2016; Revised 25 December 2016; Accepted 30 January 2017; Published 6 March 2017

Academic Editor: Lotfi Senhadji

Copyright © 2017 Mustafa Bilgehan Imamoglu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Up-to-date information is crucial in many fields such as medicine, science, and stock market, where data should be distributed to clients from a centralized database. Shared databases are usually stored in data centers where they are distributed over insecure public access network, the Internet. Sharing may result in a number of problems such as unauthorized copies, alteration of data, and distribution to unauthorized people for reuse. Researchers proposed using watermarking to prevent problems and claim digital rights. Many methods are proposed recently to watermark databases to protect digital rights of owners. Particularly, optimization based watermarking techniques draw attention, which results in lower distortion and improved watermark capacity. Difference expansion watermarking (DEW) with Firefly Algorithm (FFA), a bioinspired optimization technique, is proposed to embed watermark into relational databases in this work. Best attribute values to yield lower distortion and increased watermark capacity are selected efficiently by the FFA. Experimental results indicate that FFA has reduced complexity and results in less distortion and improved watermark capacity compared to similar works reported in the literature.