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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2017, Article ID 1840140, 11 pages
Research Article

Pricing of Vehicle-to-Grid Services in a Microgrid by Nash Bargaining Theory

Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence should be addressed to Mohammad Hossein Sarparandeh;

Received 2 September 2016; Accepted 27 December 2016; Published 19 January 2017

Academic Editor: Linni Jian

Copyright © 2017 Mohammad Hossein Sarparandeh and Mehdi Ehsan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Owners of electric vehicles (EVs) can offer the storage capacity of their batteries to the operator of a microgrid as a service called vehicle-to-grid (V2G) to hold the balance between supply and demand of electricity, particularly when the microgrid has intermittent renewable energy sources. Literature review implies that V2G has economic benefits for both microgrid operator and EV owners, but it is unclear how these benefits are divided between them. The challenge grows when the policy makers rely on the V2G revenue as an incentive for expanding the penetration of EVs in the automotive market. This paper models the interaction between microgrid operator and EV owners as a bargaining game to determine how the benefits of V2G should be divided. The method has been implemented on a hybrid power system with high wind penetration in addition to diesel generators in Manjil, Iran. The results indicate that, in addition to V2G benefits, government subsidies are necessary to promote the use of EVs.