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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2017, Article ID 3095347, 13 pages
Research Article

Design and Validation of Real-Time Optimal Control with ECMS to Minimize Energy Consumption for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

1School of Mechatronics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
2Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Machinery Equipment Advanced Manufacturing, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China
3School of Mechatronics Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China
4School of Information Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Xiaozhong Deng; nc.ude.tsuah@duolcelgae

Received 27 September 2016; Accepted 13 December 2016; Published 26 January 2017

Academic Editor: Michele Betti

Copyright © 2017 Aiyun Gao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A real-time optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) with the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) is presented in this paper, whose purpose is to achieve the total equivalent fuel consumption minimization and to maintain the battery state of charge () within its operation range at all times simultaneously. Vehicle and assembly models of PHEVs are established, which provide the foundation for the following calculations. The ECMS is described in detail, in which an instantaneous cost function including the fuel energy and the electrical energy is proposed, whose emphasis is the computation of the equivalent factor. The real-time optimal control strategy is designed through regarding the minimum of the total equivalent fuel consumption as the control objective and the torque split factor as the control variable. The validation of the control strategy proposed is demonstrated both in the MATLAB/Simulink/Advisor environment and under actual transportation conditions by comparing the fuel economy, the charge sustainability, and parts performance with other three control strategies under different driving cycles including standard, actual, and real-time road conditions. Through numerical simulations and real vehicle tests, the accuracy of the approach used for the evaluation of the equivalent factor is confirmed, and the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and keeping the deviations of at a low level is illustrated.