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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2017, Article ID 5098183, 13 pages
Research Article

Electric Vehicle Routing Problem with Charging Time and Variable Travel Time

1School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Jun Bi; nc.ude.utjb@ibj

Received 26 September 2016; Accepted 9 November 2016; Published 5 January 2017

Academic Editor: Marcello Pellicciari

Copyright © 2017 Sai Shao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


An electric vehicle routing problem with charging time and variable travel time is developed to address some operational issues such as range limitation and charging demand. The model is solved by using genetic algorithm to obtain the routes, the vehicle departure time at the depot, and the charging plan. Meanwhile, a dynamic Dijkstra algorithm is applied to find the shortest path between any two adjacent nodes along the routes. To prevent the depletion of all battery power and ensure safe operation in transit, electric vehicles with insufficient battery power can be repeatedly recharged at charging stations. The fluctuations in travel time are implemented to reflect a dynamic traffic environment. In conclusion, a large and realistic case study with a road network in the Beijing urban area is conducted to evaluate the model performance and the solution technology and analyze the results.