Research Article

Vehicle Reference Generator for Collision-Free Trajectories in Hazardous Maneuvers

Figure 3

Braking maneuver before reaching the obstacle due to a moose. (a) Real (solid) and reference (dashed) trajectories. (b) Longitudinal velocity (black solid); reference (black dashed) [m/s versus s]. (c) Repulsive force [N versus s]. (d) Distance between reference vehicle and the moose (black), influence distance (gray dashed), and safety distance (gray solid) [m versus s].