Mathematical Problems in Engineering / 2019 / Article / Fig 3

Research Article

Combination Synchronization of Three Nonidentical Ecological Systems with Species Invasion

Figure 3

Dynamics of systems (3) and (4) before and after combination synchronization. The graphs are - and - phase portraits before the combination synchronization, (a) and (b); phase portrait after the combination synchronization, (c); sensitivity analysis on the dynamics corresponding to upper row, (d), (e), and (f). The sensitivity analysis is performed by comparing the difference of dynamics when two close initial conditions, which show difference of 10−5, are applied. The parametric conditions are the same as those in Figure 2.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

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