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Temperature and Stress Evaluation during Three Different Phases of Friction Stir Welding of AA 7075-T651 Alloy
The current study performs an explicit nonlinear finite element simulation to predict temperature distribution and consequent stresses during the friction stir welding (FSW) of AA 7075-T651 alloy. The ABAQUS® finite element software was used to model and analyze the process steps that involve plunging, dwelling, and traverse stages. Techniques such as Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulation, adaptive meshing, and computational feature of mass scaling were utilized to simulate sequence events during the friction stir welding process. The contact between the welding tool and workpiece was modelled through applying Coulomb’s friction model with a nonlinear friction coefficient value. Also, the model considered the effect of nonlinear material properties as well as heat transfer conditions such as heat losses due to convection and thermal contact conductance between the workpiece and the backing plate interface on the thermal history. To validate the computational model results, an experimental procedure was carried out to measure temperature history on both sides of the specimen as well as the plunging force throughout the whole process time. The results obtained showed that symmetrical temperature distribution throughout the workpiece width was distinguished, implying that the tool rotation has a minor effect on the final temperature distribution. In addition, asymptotic V shape with high gradient temperature value in the weld nugget region after the full plunging was distinguished. Mechanical stresses and related plastic deformations generated, while achieving the FSW samples were evaluated in addition to the tool reaction force and heat generated to protect against tool failure.
Study of the Compressive Strength of Mortars as a Function of Material Composition, Workability, and Specimen Geometry
In the present work, the statistical dispersion of the mortar compressive strength as a function of the geometric parameters of the specimens as well as the effect of the mortar workability difference on the compressive strength was investigated. For this purpose, specimens were prepared for six types of mortars: two conventional mortars in the proportions of 1 : 1 : 6 and 1 : 2 : 9 of cement, hydrated lime, and sand, respectively, two with clay replacing lime, and two with marble waste in place of lime. The results confirm the difference between the results found for the two geometries due to the differences in the heights of the molding layers and show that the workability of the mortar modifies the resistance properties, especially in the cylindrical mold where the molding of the specimens is more complex. By comparing the differences between the destructive test results and those defined by the Finite Element Modeling (FEM) for conventional mortars, it was clear that the effect of excess material in the sample during the compression tests did not change the strength properties studied. This facilitates the performance of the assay as specimens may be used excessively on the side without the need for sample rectification.
Combined Heat and Mass Transfer of Fluid Flowing through Horizontal Channel by Turbulent Forced Convection
In the present paper, we report a numerical study of dynamic and thermal behavior of the incompressible turbulent air flow by forced convection in a two-dimensional horizontal channel. This one contains the complicated form of the deflector which has been studied by varying the inclination angle from φ = 40°, φ = 55° to φ = 65°. The baffles are mounted on lower and upper walls of the channel. The walls are maintained at a constant temperature (375 K), the inlet velocity of air is Uint = 7.8 m/s, and the Reynolds number Re = 8.73 × 104. A specifically developed numerical model was based on the finite-volume method to solve the coupled governing equations and the SIMPLE (Semi Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equation) algorithm for the treatment of velocity-pressure coupling. For Pr = 0.71, the results obtained show that (i) the streamlines and isotherms are strongly affected by the inclinations angles at Re = 8.73 × 104, (ii) the friction coefficient near the baffles increases under the angle exchange effect, and (iii) for a constant Re, the local Nusselt number at the walls of the channel varies with increasing the inclination angle of the deflector. Furthermore, the deflectors are generally used to change the direction of the structure of flow and also to increase the turbulence levels. We can conclude that the contribution of inclined baffles improves the increase of heat and mass transfer in which the Nusselt number at a certain angle increases noticeably.
A Cellular Automaton Model for Pedestrians’ Movements Influenced by Gaseous Hazardous Material Spreading
A cellular automaton (CA) model is proposed to simulate the egress of pedestrians while gaseous hazardous material is spreading. The advection-diffusion with source term is used to describe the propagation of gaseous hazardous material. It is incorporated into the CA model. The navigation field in our model is determined by the solution of the Eikonal equation. The state transition of a pedestrian relies on the arrival time of cells in the Moore neighborhood. Numerical experiments are investigated in a room with multiple exits, and their results are shown.
Thermohydraulic Performance Improvement in Heat Exchanger Square Duct Inserted with 45° Inclined Square Ring
Thermal performance development, heat transfer structure, and flow behavior in the heat exchanger square duct equipped with a 45° inclined square ring are investigated numerically. The effects of flow blockage ratios and spacing ratios for the inclined square ring on fluid flow and heat transfer are considered. The Reynolds number (Re = 100–2000, laminar regime) based on the hydraulic diameter of the square duct is selected for the present work. The numerical domain of the square duct inserted with the 45° inclined square ring is solved with the finite volume method. The SIMPLE algorithm is picked for the numerical investigation. The heat transfer characteristics and flow topologies in the square duct inserted with the inclined square ring are plotted in the numerical report. The heat transfer rate, pressure loss, and efficiency for the square duct placed with the inclined square ring are presented in forms of Nusselt number, friction factor, and thermal enhancement factor, respectively. As the numerical results, it is detected that the heat transfer rate of the heat exchanger square duct inserted with the inclined square ring is around 1.00–10.05 times over the smooth duct with no inclined square ring. Additionally, the maximum thermal enhancement factor for the heat exchanger square duct inserted with the inclined square ring is around 2.84.
Aerodynamic Forces Affecting the H-Rotor Darrieus Wind Turbine
Darrieus wind rotor is a vertical axis wind turbine that is a very promising kind of wind converters at remote and domestic locations that have soft and weak wind potential and speed, but from the quantitative comparison with horizontal axis wind turbines, this type of turbines has a weak performance. Additional researches are still needed to develop its efficiency to identify all the requirements of the generated power in low power demands. The aim of the current investigation is to analyze all the acting forces on the main parts of Darrieus rotor over the rotations as well as in maintenance and stationary conditions. Aerodynamic forces assessment will be executed for 3 different blade shapes (nonsymmetric and symmetric airfoils) like the airfoil section shapes of the Darrieus rotor blades. NACA 0021, LS413, and S1046 are selected as cross-sectional profile in this work. CFD simulations have been used in this work to get the different aerodynamic forces on the rotor blades of the Darrieus turbines. The present results indicated that the symmetric S1046 blade has higher forces during the rotation and stagnant (static) conditions. Moreover, the self-starting capability of NACA 0021 is better than S1046 due to low aerodynamic torsion on the S1046 blades.