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Modelling and Simulation in Engineering
Volume 2009, Article ID 190307, 7 pages
Research Article

Dynamic Tracking of Lung Deformation during Breathing by Using Particle Method

1Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-6 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan
2Department of Quantum Engineering and System Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
3Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun 319-1188, Japan

Received 22 September 2008; Revised 27 April 2009; Accepted 5 June 2009

Academic Editor: Ewa Pietka

Copyright © 2009 Subas Chhatkuli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To reduce the side effects and to improve the efficiency of radiation therapy in lung cancer, a pinpoint radiation therapy system is under development. In the system, the movement of lung tumor during breathing could be estimated by employing a suitable numerical modeling technique. This paper presents a gridless numerical technique called Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method to simulate the lung deformation during breathing. The potential of the proposed method to employ in the future pinpoint radiation therapy system has been explored. Deformation of lung during breathing was dynamically tracked and compared against the experimental results at two different locations (upper lobe and lower lobe). Numerical simulations showed that the deformation of lung surface ranged from less than 4 mm to over 20 mm depending on the location at the surface of lung. The simulation showed that the lower section of lung exhibited comparatively large displacement than the upper section. Comparing with the experimental data, the lung surface displacement during inspiration process was predicted reasonably well. Comparison of numerical prediction with experimental observations showed that the root mean squared error was about 2 mm at lower lobe and less than 1 mm at upper lobe at lung surface.