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Modelling and Simulation in Engineering
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 127359, 7 pages
Research Article

Simulated Annealing Technique for Routing in a Rectangular Mesh Network

1Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
2Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

Received 21 July 2014; Revised 8 December 2014; Accepted 9 December 2014; Published 22 December 2014

Academic Editor: Min-Chie Chiu

Copyright © 2014 Noraziah Adzhar and Shaharuddin Salleh. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the process of automatic design for printed circuit boards (PCBs), the phase following cell placement is routing. On the other hand, routing process is a notoriously difficult problem, and even the simplest routing problem which consists of a set of two-pin nets is known to be NP-complete. In this research, our routing region is first tessellated into a uniform array of square cells. The ultimate goal for a routing problem is to achieve complete automatic routing with minimal need for any manual intervention. Therefore, shortest path for all connections needs to be established. While classical Dijkstra’s algorithm guarantees to find shortest path for a single net, each routed net will form obstacles for later paths. This will add complexities to route later nets and make its routing longer than the optimal path or sometimes impossible to complete. Today’s sequential routing often applies heuristic method to further refine the solution. Through this process, all nets will be rerouted in different order to improve the quality of routing. Because of this, we are motivated to apply simulated annealing, one of the metaheuristic methods to our routing model to produce better candidates of sequence.