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Patient and Clinician Perspectives of Physical Therapy for Walking Difficulties in Multiple SclerosisRead the full article
Multiple Sclerosis International publishes articles related to all aspects of multiple sclerosis, such as clinical neurology, neuroimaging, neuropathology, neuroimmunology, biomarkers, psychology and neurorehabilitation.
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Is Celiac Disease (CD) Prevalent in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease, and its prevalence reported variously in different studies. The goal of this study is to evaluate the pooled prevalence of CD in subjects with MS. Methods. PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar along with gray literature were systematically searched. The search included all relevant studies which were published up to October 2022. Two researchers independently searched all databases and also references of included studies. Results. We found 8211 articles by literature search, and after deleting duplicates, 5594 remained. Fifteen articles remained for meta-analysis. Totally, 31418 patients were evaluated, and the total number of possible/confirmed cases was 124. Studies were published between 2004 and 2020, and the most published studies were from Italy. Five studies provided information regarding controls. The total number of controls was 22394, of whom 22 had CD. Mean age ranged from 35 to 55 years. The pooled prevalence of CD in MS patients was 0 (%, ). The pooled odds of CD in subjects with MS are 0.46 (95% CI: 0.19-1.1) (, ). Conclusion. The pooled prevalence of this systematic review showed that CD is not prevalent in MS cases.
Association of Disease-Modifying Therapies with COVID-19 Susceptibility and Severity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Background. We conducted this study to assess the effect of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) susceptibility and severity in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods. Available studies from PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, and gray literature, including reference lists and conference abstracts, were searched from December 1, 2019, to July 26, 2021. We included cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies assessing the association of DMTs with risk of contracting COVID-19 or its outcomes in MS patients on univariate or multivariate regression analyses. We conducted a network meta-analysis (NMA) to compare the risk of COVID-19 and developing severe infection across DMTs. Results. Out of the initial 3893 records and 1883 conference abstracts, a total of 10 studies were included. Pairwise comparisons showed that none of the DMTs meaningfully affect the risk of acquiring infection. There was significant total heterogeneity and inconsistency across this NMA. In comparison with no DMT, dimethyl fumarate (0.62 (0.42, 0.93)), fingolimod (0.55 (0.32, 0.94)), natalizumab (0.50 (0.31, 0.81)), and interferon (0.42 (0.22, 0.79)) were associated with a decreased risk of severe COVID-19; but, rituximab was observed to increase the risk (1.94 (1.20, 3.12)). Compared to rituximab or ocrelizumab, all DMTs were associated with a decreased risk. Pairwise comparisons showed no differences across other DMTs. Interferon and rituximab were associated with the lowest and highest risks of severe COVID-19. Conclusion. Our study showed an increased risk of severe COVID-19 in patients on rituximab and ocrelizumab. No association with COVID-19 severity across other DMTs was observed.
The Effectiveness of Physiotherapy Interventions for Mobility in Severe Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. People with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) prioritise gait as the most valuable function to be affected by MS. Physiotherapy plays a key role in managing gait impairment in MS. There is little evidence on the effectiveness of physiotherapy for severe MS. Objective. To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to identify evidence for the effectiveness of physiotherapy for gait impairment in severe MS. Methods. The available literature was systematically searched, using a predetermined protocol, to identify research studies investigating a physiotherapy intervention for mobility in people with severe MS (). Data on mobility related endpoints was extracted. Meta-analysis was performed where a given mobility end point was reported in at least 3 studies. Results. 37 relevant papers were identified, which included 788 pwMS. Seven mobility-related endpoints were meta-analysed. Robot-Assisted Gait Training (RAGT) was found to improve performance on the 6-minute walk test, 10-metre walk test, fatigue severity scale, and Berg Balance Scale. Neither body weight supported training nor conventional walking training significantly improved any mobility-related outcomes. Conclusion. Physiotherapy interventions are feasible for mobility in severe MS. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of RAGT.
Disability and Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Can Rehabilitation Improve Them through a Structured Retraining Program?
Functional rehabilitation programs in multiple sclerosis have demonstrated their efficacy in improving fatigue. The assessment of functional impairment, however, is more difficult. The purpose is to assess fatigue and disability as a first study measure and to verify their improvement after a specific functional rehabilitation program. An analytical, longitudinal, prospective, and experimental study was carried out with 51 patients aged 18-55 years, with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) between 2 and 6.5 who were being followed up in outpatient clinics of the Rehabilitation Service of La Princesa Hospital. The fatigue and disability outcomes before and after a structured exercise training program were evaluated, with each subject acting as their own control. The variables were measured using the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Barthel Index (BI), and Functional Independence Scale (FIM). Differences according to recurrent or progressive course of the disease are assessed. Improvement in the FIM scale was observed after the retraining program () and was maintained in the medium term (). This improvement is not statistically significant in Barthel Index. Improvement in MFIS is observed after the program () and 4-6 months after the end. Both disease courses experience the same improvements with no statistically significant differences between them. The retraining program improves fatigue and multiple sclerosis-related functionality in the short and medium term. There are no differences according to disease course. Both experience the same positive changes with our intervention.
Incidence and Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in Malmö, Southern Sweden
Objectives. To estimate the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Malmö municipality in southwestern Sweden. Materials and Methods. Multiple sources were used in the case identification process. Case ascertainment was assessed by medical chart review including examinations such as magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and relevant laboratory tests. Cases were classified according to the 2010 McDonald’s diagnostic criteria. Onset-adjusted prevalence and a definition of onset symptoms were applied. Results. The crude incidence of MS in 2001-2010 in Malmö municipality was 5.3/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5 to 6.2). There was a relapsing onset in 90.5% of cases. The female to male ratio was 1.8. The onset-adjusted prevalence for Dec 2010 was 133/100,000 (95% CI, 120 to 146) with a female to male ratio of 2.1. Conclusions. This is the first population-based epidemiological study in Skåne, the most southwestern part of Sweden showing a high incidence and prevalence. We found a lower incidence than expected according to previous nationwide figures, probably due to methodological differences between the studies. Our findings support the presence of a north-south gradient of MS prevalence in Sweden.
Telehealth-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study
Background. Over 50% of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) have moderate or severe sleep disturbances, insomnia being the most common. In-person cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (F2F-CBTi) is currently the first-line treatment for insomnia. However, given potential limitations to access including mobility difficulty, fatigue, or living in a rural area, telehealth-delivered CBT-I (tele-CBTi) has been considered as an alternative treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and treatment effect of tele-CBTi in people with MS and compare it to outcomes from a F2F-CBTi study in individuals with MS. Methods. 11 individuals with MS and symptoms of insomnia participated in 6 weekly CBT-I sessions with a trained CBT-I provider via live video. Insomnia severity (ISI), sleep quality (PSQI), and fatigue severity (FSS and MFIS) were assessed pre- and posttreatment as primary outcomes. Sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST) from the PSQI, depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), sleep self-efficacy (SSES), and quality of life (MSIS-29) were also assessed pre- and posttreatment as secondary outcomes. Results. Participants resided in 9 different states. Retention and adherence rates were 100%. There were significant improvements in ISI, PSQI, MFIS, FSS, SOL, SSES, PHQ-9, and MSIS-29, but not SE, TST, or GAD-7. There were no significant differences between the F2F-CBTi group and tele-CBTi group for magnitude of change in the primary outcomes (ISI, PSQI, MFIS, and FSS) or the secondary outcomes (SOL, SE, TST, SSES, PHQ-9, GAD-7, and MSIS-29). Conclusions. Tele-CBTi is feasible and has outcome measures that are similar to that of in-person CBT-I treatment. Tele-CBTi may increase access to insomnia treatment in individuals with MS.
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