Somatosensory anlage from 17-18 day old rat embryos were transplanted in place of the removed barrel cortex in adult rats. Six to eight months after transplantation, the grafts were either completely separated by glial scar or partly separated and partly confluent with the host neocortex. Each was studied histologically and immunostained for GABA. It was found that in partly confluent grafts the neuronal density was similar or even higher than in the host cortex, while the cell number in the separate grafts was much lower than in the nearby host cortex. The number of GABA-positive cells, however, was in all grafts significantly lower (2.9% on average) than in the normal cortex (11.8% on average).The decline in GABA-stained nerve cells was highest in separated grafts, but was somewhat less marked in transplants partly confluent with the host tissue. The possible role of partial or total deafferentation as well as the relative vulnerability of the transplanted tissue by temporary hypoxia and other metabolic disturbances are discussed as the probable factors in selective decline of GABA-ergic cells in the transplanted somatosensory cortex.