(a) Spiking phase
(b) Dendritic phase
(c) Stimulus angle
Figure 5: Phase relative to location in the environment. (a) Spiking phase due to precession (with refractory period). Note that phase depends upon location, but is circularly symmetric. (b) Dendritic phase of oscillations contains more complete continuous representation of location. (c) Plot of the angle of a single distal visual stimulus as a rat moves around in an environment, indicating similarity of allocentric stimulus angle to integrated dendritic phase in a grid cell.