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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2009, Article ID 579382, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/579382
Review Article

Contributions of Matrix Metalloproteinases to Neural Plasticity, Habituation, Associative Learning and Drug Addiction

1Department of Psychology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4820, USA
2Department of Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6520, USA
3Programs in Neuroscience and Biotechnology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6520, USA

Received 31 August 2009; Revised 22 November 2009; Accepted 15 December 2009

Academic Editor: Leszek Kaczmarek

Copyright © 2009 John W. Wright and Joseph W. Harding. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The premise of this paper is that increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) permits the reconfiguration of synaptic connections (i.e., neural plasticity) by degrading cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) designed to provide stability to those extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that form scaffolding supporting neurons and glia. It is presumed that while these ECM proteins are weakened, and/or detached, synaptic connections can form resulting in new neural pathways. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are designed to deactivate MMPs permitting the reestablishment of CAMs, thus returning the system to a reasonably fixed state. This review considers available findings concerning the roles of MMPs and TIMPs in reorganizing ECM proteins thus facilitating the neural plasticity underlying long-term potentiation (LTP), habituation, and associative learning. We conclude with a consideration of the influence of these phenomena on drug addiction, given that these same processes may be instrumental in the formation of addiction and subsequent relapse. However, our knowledge concerning the precise spatial and temporal relationships among the mechanisms of neural plasticity, habituation, associative learning, and memory consolidation is far from complete and the possibility that these phenomena mediate drug addiction is a new direction of research.