Neural Plasticity / 2011 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Interplay of Amygdala and Cingulate Plasticity in Emotional Fear

Figure 2

A cellular model for LTP in the lateral amygdale. (a) Diagram of an amygdala slice showing the placement of whole-cell patch-clamp recording and stimulation electrode. (b) LTP is induced by 80 pulses at 2 Hz with postsynaptic holding at +30 mV. (c) Activations of postsynaptic glutamate NMDA receptors and L-VDCCs lead to an increase in postsynaptic Ca2+ in dendritic spines. Ca2+ binds to CaM and leads to activation of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinases (PKA, CaMKII, and CaMKIV). Subsequently, AMPA receptor will undergo plastic upregulation. Activation of CaMKIV, a kinase predominantly expressed in the nuclei, will trigger CREB signaling pathways. MAPK could translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus and then regulate CREB activity. mGluR5 and presynaptic KA receptors are involved in induction of LTP. Induction of thalamic LTP suppresses the presynaptic LTP by activation of presynaptic CB1 receptors by eCB released in response to activation of mGluR1.

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