Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Neural Plasticity
Volume 2012, Article ID 348642, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/348642
Review Article

Immune System in the Brain: A Modulatory Role on Dendritic Spine Morphophysiology?

1Laboratorio de Neuroinmunomodulación, División de Neurociencias, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Sierra Mojada No. 800 Col. Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
2Laboratorio de Psicobiología, División de Neurociencias, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Sierra Mojada No. 800 Col. Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
3Departamento de Biología Celular y Molecular, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, 45110 Zapopan, JAL, Mexico

Received 30 November 2011; Revised 10 January 2012; Accepted 26 January 2012

Academic Editor: Irina Nikonenko

Copyright © 2012 Oscar Kurt Bitzer-Quintero and Ignacio González-Burgos. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Neumann, “Control of glial immune function by neurons,” GLIA, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 191–199, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  2. M. Schultzberg, C. Lindberg, A. F. Aronsson, E. Hjorth, S. D. Spulber, and M. Oprica, “Inflammation in the nervous system—physiological and pathophysiological aspects,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 92, no. 1-2, pp. 121–128, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  3. F. Aloisi, “Immune function of microglia,” GLIA, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 165–179, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  4. A. R. Simard and S. Rivest, “Neuroprotective effects of resident microglia following acute brain injury,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 504, no. 6, pp. 716–729, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  5. D. Wronna, “Neural immune interactions: an integrative view of the directional relationship between the brain and the immune system,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 38–58, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  6. G. R. John, S. C. Lee, and C. F. Brosnan, “Cytokines: powerful regulators of glial cell activation,” The Neuroscientist, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 10–22, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. A. Chavarria and J. Alcocer-Varela, “Is damage in central nervous system due to inflammation,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 251–260, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. C. Lambert, A. R. Ase, P. Séguéla, and J. P. Antel, “Distinct Migratory and cytokine responses of human microglia and macrophages to ATP,” Brain, Behavior and Immunity, vol. 24, pp. 1241–1248, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  9. E. M. Sternberg, “Neural regulation of innate immunity: a coordinated non-specific host response to pathogens,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 6, pp. 318–328, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  10. H. Kettenmann, U. K. Hanish, M. Noda, and A. Verkhratsky, “Physiology of microglia,” Physiology Reviews, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 461–553, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  11. U.-K. Hanisch and H. Ketenmann, “Microglia: active sensor and versatile effector cells in the normal and pathological brain,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 10, pp. 1387–1394, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  12. M. E. Truckenmiller, M. F. Princiotta, C. C. Norbury, and R. H. Bonnean, “Corticosterone impairs MHC class I antigen presentation by dendritic cells via reduction of peptide generation,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 48–60, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  13. M. Kerschensteiner, E. Meinl, and R. Hohlfeld, “Neuro-immune crosstalk in CNS diseases,” Neuroscience, vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 1122–1132, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. T. Benn, C. Halfpenny, and N. Sading, “Glial cells as targets for cytotoxic immune mediators,” GLIA, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 200–211, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  15. J. Goverman, “Autoimmune T cells responses in the central nervous system,” Nature Review Immunology, vol. 9, pp. 393–407, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  16. E. G. De Araujo, G. M. Da Silva, and A. A. Dos Santos, “Neuronal cell survival. The role of interleukins,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1153, pp. 57–64, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. M. Pickering and J. J. O’Connor, “Pro-inflammatory cytokines and their effects in the dentate gyrus,” in Progress in Brain Research, H. E. Scharfaman, Ed., vol. 163, pp. 339–354, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. L. Muzio, G. Martino, and R. Furlan, “Multifaceted aspects of inflammation in multiple sclerosis: the role of microglia,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 191, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  19. S. Kondo, S. Kohsaka, and S. Okabe, “Long-term changes of spine dynamics and microglia after transient peripheral immune response triggered by LPS in vivo,” Molecular Brain, vol. 4, no. 1, article 27, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  20. G. A. Czapski, B. Gajkowska, and J. B. Storsznajder, “Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide induces molecular and morphological alterations in the hippocampus,” Brain Research, vol. 1356, pp. 85–94, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. V. Eggers, A. Schilling, W. J. Kox, and C. Spies, “Septic encephalopathy. Diagnosis and therapy,” Anaesthesist, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 294–303, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  22. M. Boogaard, B. P. Ramakers, N. Alfen et al., “Endotoxemia-induced inflammation and the effect on the human brain,” Critical Care, vol. 14, article R81, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  23. A. Suzumura, H. Takeuchi, G. Zhang, R. Kuno, and T. Mizuno, “Roles of glia-derived cytokines on neuronal degeneration and regeneration,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1088, pp. 219–229, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. K. Jakubs, S. Bonde, R. E. Iosif et al., “Inflammation regulates functional integration of neurons born in adult brain,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 28, no. 47, pp. 12477–12488, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  25. O. Bloom, J. J. Unternaehrer, A. Jiang et al., “Spinophilin participates in information transfer at immunological synapses,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 181, no. 2, pp. 203–211, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  26. J. M. Mateos, A. Luthi, N. Savic et al., “Synaptic modifications at CA3-CA1 synapse after chronic AMPA receptor blockade in rat hippocampal slices,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 581, pp. 129–138, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  27. Y. Shen, S. S. Liu, M. Y. Zhan, J. H. Luo, and J. L. Zhu, “Interleukin-2 enhances dendritic development and spinogenesis in cultured hippocampal neurons,” Anatomical Records, vol. 293, no. 6, pp. 1017–1023, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed