|Species||ECT treatment||Experimental approach||Effects on neurogenesis||Molecular target||References|
|Wistar rat||Single ECT||BrdU (2 × 37.5 mg/kg, ip) at 12-hour intervals, starting at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days after ECT and analysis 48 hours after the last injection of BrdU.||Increased cell proliferation.||NS|||
|Sprague-Dawley rat||Chronic ECT: once daily for 10 days||Proliferation: BrdU (4 × 45 mg/kg, ip) with 2-hour intervals, on 4 days after ECT and analysis at 24 hours after last BrdU injection.|
Survival: BrdU (4 × 45 mg/kg, ip) with 2-hour intervals before ECT treatment and analysis at 28 days after last BrdU injection.
|Increased cell proliferation and survival rate.||NS|||
|Sprague-Dawley rat||Single ECT|
Chronic ECT: once daily for 7 days
|BrdU (150 mg/kg, ip) at 2 or 24 hours pulsing chase.||2-hour BrdU pulse chase after single ECT: increased quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs) and slightly increased amplifying neural progenitors (ANPs) with no statistical significance.|
At 24-hour BrdU pulse chase after single and chronic ECT: increased QNPs and ANPs.
|Wistar rat||ECT every second day for a course of 8 seizures||Starting with seizure number 5, BrdU (1 × 50 mg/kg, ip) at 2-or 3-hour intervals following each ECT treatment. Injections were also given at the same time during the 3 days between treatments, resulting in a total of seven injections.||Increased maturation of newborn neurons.||NS|||
|Sprague-Dawley rat||ECT two times||NIT-GFP retroviral injection after ECT treatment.||Increased mushroom spine density on newborn granule neuron dendrites.||NS|||
|Single ECT||BrdU (1 × 200 mg/kg, ip) at 2-hour pulsing chase.|
GFP retroviral injection.
|Increased cell proliferation.|
Increased total dendritic length and dendritic complexity.
|Bonnet monkey||ECT: three times a week for four weeks||Proliferation: BrdU (100 mg/kg, iv) daily for 4 days.|
Survival: BrdU (100 mg/kg, iv) daily for 4 days and analysis at 4 weeks after BrdU injection.
|Increased cell proliferation and neuronal maturation.||BCL2|| |
|Deep Brain Stimulation|
|Sprague-Dawley rat||Anterior thalamic nucleus was stimulated at 2.5 V, 90 μse of pulse width, and variable frequencies (10, 50, 130 Hz) for an hour.||BrdU (4 × 50 mg/kg, ip) with 3-hour interval and analysis at 24 hours or 4 weeks after last BrdU injection.||Increased cell proliferation.|
No change in neuronal maturation
|C57BL/6 mouse and nestin-CFPnuc transgenic mouse||Anterior Thalamic Nucleus was stimulated at 2.5 V, 90 μs of pulse width, and frequencies 10 Hz (low) and 130 Hz (high) for an hour.||BrdU (3 × 50 mg/kg, ip) with 3-hour intervals and analysis at 24 hours or 30 days after last BrdU injection.||Increased cell proliferation in high frequency but not low frequency.|
Increased proliferation of amplifying neural progenitors (ANPs), but no change in quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs) at high frequency.
Increased neuronal maturation at high frequency but not low frequency.
|Mixed genetic background between C57BL/6NTacfBr and 129Svev mice||Entorhinal cortex at at 0–500 μA current, for 30–120 minutes, at 90 μs of pulse width and 130 Hz frequency. ||Proliferation: BrdU (1 × 200 mg/kg, ip) injection on day 1, 3, 5, or 7 after stimulation and analysis at 24 hours after BrdU injection.|
Neuronal maturation: IdU (57 mg/kg, ip) injections during the period of stimulation-induced increased proliferation (postoperative days 3–5), CldU (42.5 mg/kg, i.p.) injections during a similar period of baseline proliferation (postoperative days 7–9), and analysis about 10 weeks later.
Survival: BrdU daily (100 mg/kg, ip) with 8-hour intervals for 3 days on 1, 10, or 30 days before stimulation and postoperative analysis 3 weeks later.
Dendritic development: GFP-retroviral injection.
|Increased cell proliferation after 60 or 120 minutes of stimulation and at 50, 250, and 500 μA.|
No change in fate determination of newborn cells.
Increased dendritic length of newborn granule neurons but no change in nodes per neuron and dendritic spine size.
|Improved spatial memory formation measured by water maze.|||