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Figure 5: Identification of the iDG phenotype using real-time polymerase chain reaction. iDG is characterized by upregulation of dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) and downregulation of both desmoplakin (Dsp) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (Tdo2) in the hippocampus. Asterisks indicate statistical significance determined using the Student’s -test (** , –7 per group). Adapted from Yamasaki et al. [1], Takao et al. [2], Kobayashi et al. [5], and Shin et al. [6].