Immature Dentate Gyrus: An Endophenotype of Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Identification of the iDG phenotype using real-time polymerase chain reaction. iDG is characterized by upregulation of dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) and downregulation of both desmoplakin (Dsp) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (Tdo2) in the hippocampus. Asterisks indicate statistical significance determined using the Student’s -test (**, –7 per group). Adapted from Yamasaki et al. , Takao et al. , Kobayashi et al. , and Shin et al. .