Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Neural Plasticity
Volume 2014, Article ID 163908, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/163908
Research Article

The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

1Bio-X Institutes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240, China
2Zhiyuan College, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240, China
3School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240, China

Received 25 September 2013; Revised 12 February 2014; Accepted 12 February 2014; Published 15 April 2014

Academic Editor: Masayuki Matsushita

Copyright © 2014 Lu-jing Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. O. Agid, B. Shapira, J. Zislin et al., “Environment and vulnerability to major psychiatric illness: a case control study of early parental loss in major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 163–172, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Arborelius, M. J. Owens, P. M. Plotsky, and C. B. Nemeroff, “The role of corticotropin-releasing factor in depression and anxiety disorders,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 1994.
  4. D. S. Satcher, “Executive summary: a report of the Surgeon General on mental health,” Public Health Reports, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 89–101, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Brunet, V. Akerib, P. Birmes, H. Merskey, and A. Piper, “Don't throw out the baby with the bathwater (PTSD is not overdiagnosed),” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 501–503, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Mayo Clinic staff, “Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD),” Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2011.
  7. M. Tsoory, H. Cohen, and G. Richter-Levin, “Juvenile stress induces a predisposition to either anxiety or depressive-like symptoms following stress in adulthood,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 245–256, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Heim and C. B. Nemeroff, “The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: preclinical and clinical studies,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 1023–1039, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Heim, P. M. Plotsky, and C. B. Nemeroff, “Importance of studying the contributions of early adverse experience to neurobiological findings in depression,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 641–648, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. A. Young, J. L. Abelson, G. C. Curtis, and R. M. Nesse, “Childhood adversity and vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 5, pp. 66–72, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  11. R. Famularo, R. Kinscherff, and T. Fenton, “Psychiatric diagnoses of maltreated children: preliminary findings,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 863–867, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Miura, Y. Ando, Y. Noda, K. Isobe, and N. Ozaki, “Long-lasting effects of inescapable-predator stress on brain tryptophan metabolism and the behavior of juvenile mice,” Stress, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 262–272, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. E. Adamec and T. Shallow, “Lasting effects on rodent anxiety of a single exposure to a cat,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 101–109, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Cohen, J. Zohar, M. A. Matar, K. Zeev, U. Loewenthal, and G. Richter-Levin, “Setting apart the affected: the use of behavioral criteria in animal models of post traumatic stress disorder,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1962–1970, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. Adamec, “Transmitter systems involved in neural plasticity underlying increased anxiety and defense implications for understanding anxiety following traumatic stress,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 755–765, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. E. Adamec, P. Burton, T. Shallow, and J. Budgell, “NMDA receptors mediate lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior produced by the stress of predator exposure—implications for anxiety associated with posttraumatic stress disorder,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 65, no. 4-5, pp. 723–737, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. E. Adamec, T. Shallow, and J. Budgell, “Blockade of CCK(B) but not CCK(A) receptors before and after the stress of predator exposure prevents lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior: implications for anxiety associated with posttraumatic stress disorder,” Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 435–449, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Cohen, S. Friedberg, M. Michael, M. Kotler, and K. Zeev, “Interaction of CCK-4 induced anxiety and post-cat exposure anxiety in rats,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 4, pp. 144–145, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  19. H. Cohen, J. Benjamin, Z. Kaplan, and M. Kotler, “Administration of high-dose ketoconazole, an inhibitor of steroid synthesis, prevents posttraumatic anxiety in an animal model,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 429–435, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Cohen, Z. Kaplan, and M. Kotler, “CCK-antagonists in a rat exposed to acute stress: implication for anxiety associated with post-traumatic stress disorder,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 10, pp. 8–17, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  21. H. Cohen, J. Zohar, and M. Matar, “The relevance of differential response to trauma in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 463–473, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. M. Sánchez, C. O. Ladd, and P. M. Plotsky, “Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: evidence from rodent and primate models,” Development and Psychopathology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 419–449, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. S. Duman and L. M. Monteggia, “A neurotrophic model for stress-related mood disorders,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1116–1127, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Berton, E. Vogel, and C. Belzung, “Modulation of mice anxiety in response to cat odor as a consequence of predators diet,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 247–254, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. C. Blanchard, R. J. Blanchard, and R. J. Rodgers, “Pharmacological and neural control of anti-predator defense in the rat,” Aggressive Behavior, vol. 16, no. 3-4, pp. 165–175, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Zangrossi Jr. and S. E. File, “Behavioral consequences in animal tests of anxiety and exploration of exposure to cat odor,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 3-4, pp. 381–388, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Calvo-Torrent, P. F. Brain, and M. Martinez, “Effect of predatory stress on sucrose intake and behavior on the plus-maze in male mice,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 189–196, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. P. Spear, “The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 417–463, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. De La Garza II and J. J. Mahoney III, “A distinct neurochemical profile in WKY rats at baseline and in response to acute stress: implications for animal models of anxiety and depression,” Brain Research, vol. 1021, no. 2, pp. 209–218, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Lahmame, D. E. Grigoriadis, E. B. De Souza, and A. Armario, “Brain corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity and receptors in five inbred rat strains: relationship to forced swimming behaviour,” Brain Research, vol. 750, no. 1-2, pp. 285–292, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Lahmame, C. Del Arco, A. Pazos, M. Yritia, and A. Armario, “Are Wistar-Kyoto rats a genetic animal model of depression resistant to antidepressants?” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 337, no. 2-3, pp. 115–123, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. López-Rubalcava and I. Lucki, “Strain differences in the behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs in the rat forced swimming test,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 191–199, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Miyakawa, M. Yamada, A. Duttaroy, and J. Wess, “Hyperactivity and intact hippocampus-dependent learning in mice lacking the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 5239–5250, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Beekman, C. Flachskamm, and A. C. E. Linthorst, “Effects of exposure to a predator on behaviour and serotonergic neurotransmission in different brain regions of C57BL/6N mice,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 21, pp. 2825–2836, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. N. Crawley, “Exploratory behavior models of anxiety in mice,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 37–44, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. Takao and T. Miyakawa, “Light/dark transition test for mice,” Journal of Visualized Experiments, no. 1, article e104, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B. Petit-Demouliere, F. Chenu, and M. Bourin, “Forced swimming test in mice: a review of antidepressant activity,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 245–255, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. D. Porsolt, A. Bertin, and M. Jalfre, “'Behavioral despair' in rats and mice: strain differences and the effects of imipramine,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 291–294, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. A. Walf and C. A. Frye, “The use of the elevated plus maze as an assay of anxiety-related behavior in rodents,” Nature Protocols, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 322–328, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Joseph, D. Murphy, and S. Regel, “An affective-cognitive processing model of post-traumatic growth,” Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 316–325, 2012. View at Google Scholar