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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2014, Article ID 451639, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/451639
Research Article

Behavioral Improvement and Regulation of Molecules Related to Neuroplasticity in Ischemic Rat Spinal Cord Treated with PEDF

Neuroregeneration Center, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo 455, 2nd Floor, Room 2119, 01246-903-São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 22 December 2013; Revised 4 June 2014; Accepted 5 June 2014; Published 3 July 2014

Academic Editor: Leszek Kaczmarek

Copyright © 2014 Chary Marquez Batista et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) exerts trophic actions to motoneurons and modulates nonneuronal restorative events, but its effects on neuroplasticity responses after spinal cord (SC) injury are unknown. Rats received a low thoracic SC photothrombotic ischemia and local injection of PEDF and were evaluated behaviorally six weeks later. PEDF actions were detailed in SC ventral horn (motor) in the levels of the lumbar central pattern generator (CPG), far from the injury site. Molecules related to neuroplasticity (MAP-2), those that are able to modulate such event, for instance, neurotrophic factors (NT-3, GDNF, BDNF, and FGF-2), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG), and those associated with angiogenesis and antiapoptosis (laminin and Bcl-2) and Eph (receptor)/ephrin system were evaluated at cellular or molecular levels. PEDF injection improved motor behavioral performance and increased MAP-2 levels and dendritic processes in the region of lumbar CPG. Treatment also elevated GDNF and decreased NT-3, laminin, and CSPG. Injury elevated EphA4 and ephrin-B1 levels, and PEDF treatment increased ephrin A2 and ephrins B1, B2, and B3. Eph receptors and ephrins were found in specific populations of neurons and astrocytes. PEDF treatment to SC injury triggered neuroplasticity in lumbar CPG and regulation of neurotrophic factors, extracellular matrix molecules, and ephrins.