Figure 1: Different dietary interventions in animal and human studies are believed to modulate various aspects of brain plasticity and in turn influence behaviour. Animal studies provide the vast majority of our current mechanistic understanding of the potential mechanisms by which dietary interventions impact brain plasticity. Further mechanistic studies aiming to fill the gap in our understanding of how diet can modulate plasticity and promote mental health in human populations are clearly needed. Moreover, additional intervention studies are also required to demonstrate efficacy, enabling the safe translation of such dietary interventions into clinical practice or incorporated into our daily lifestyles to enhance brain health/function and well-being. In red, effects induced by CR; in purple, effects induced by IF; in green, effects induced by supplementation with polyphenols; in orange, effects induced by PUFAs. AD: Alzheimer’s disease; AHN: adult hippocampal neurogenesis; BDNF: brain-derived neurotrophic factor; CBF: cerebral blood flow; CBV: cerebral blood volume; CORT: corticosterone; CR: calorie restriction; CREB: cAMP responsive-element binding; 5-HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine; IF: intermittent fasting; GR: glucocorticoid receptor; LTP: long-term potentiation; MAO-A: monoamine oxidase A; NMDAR: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor; NE: noradrenaline; NPY-1: neuropeptide Y type 1 receptor; PUFAs: polyunsaturated fatty acids.