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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2015, Article ID 585783, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/585783
Research Article

Statins Promote Long-Term Recovery after Ischemic Stroke by Reconnecting Noradrenergic Neuronal Circuitry

1Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea

Received 13 February 2015; Revised 6 April 2015; Accepted 28 April 2015

Academic Editor: Midori A. Yenari

Copyright © 2015 Kyoung Joo Cho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (statins), widely used to lower cholesterol in coronary heart and vascular disease, are effective drugs in reducing the risk of stroke and improving its outcome in the long term. After ischemic stroke, cardiac autonomic dysfunction and psychological problems are common complications related to deficits in the noradrenergic (NA) system. This study investigated the effects of statins on the recovery of NA neuron circuitry and its function after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). Using the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) transgene technique combined with the recombinant adenoviral vector system, NA-specific neuronal pathways were labeled, and were identified in the locus coeruleus (LC), where NA neurons originate. NA circuitry in the atorvastatin-treated group recovered faster than in the vehicle-treated group. The damaged NA circuitry was partly reorganized with the gradual recovery of autonomic dysfunction and neurobehavioral deficit. Newly proliferated cells might contribute to reorganizing NA neurons and lead anatomic and functional recovery of NA neurons. Statins may be implicated to play facilitating roles in the recovery of the NA neuron and its function.