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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2015, Article ID 676473, 15 pages
Research Article

Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy

Department of Pain Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna 12, 31-343 Krakow, Poland

Received 4 February 2015; Revised 31 March 2015; Accepted 31 March 2015

Academic Editor: Giovanni Cirillo

Copyright © 2015 Katarzyna Popiolek-Barczyk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

The graphical abstract of the analgesic effects of parthenolide (PTL) and associated changes in the glial cells, pro- and antinociceptive factors, and correlated signaling pathways activation at day 7 after CCI.

Repeated intrathecal administration of PTL in CCI-exposed rats is as follows:

(i) decreased neuropathic pain symptoms but enhanced microglia/macrophage activation.

(ii) diminished the spinal protein level of pronociceptive factors IL-18, iNOS, and IL-1beta.

(iii) increased the spinal protein level of antinociceptive factors IL-10 and TIMP1.

(iv) increased p-STAT3 and diminished p-NF-κB, p-p38, and p-ERK1/2 protein levels.

  1. Supplementary Material