Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Neural Plasticity
Volume 2016, Article ID 1320423, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1320423
Review Article

Natural Product-Derived Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Safety, Efficacy, and Therapeutic Potential of Combination Therapy

1Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
2School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747, Republic of Korea
3Department of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742, Republic of Korea

Received 9 November 2015; Revised 30 December 2015; Accepted 10 January 2016

Academic Editor: Daniel Fung

Copyright © 2016 James Ahn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Swanson, J. A. Sergeant, E. Taylor, E. J. S. Sonuga-Barke, P. S. Jensen, and D. P. Cantwell, “Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder,” The Lancet, vol. 351, no. 9100, pp. 429–433, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Polanczyk, M. S. de Lima, B. L. Horta, J. Biederman, and L. A. Rohde, “The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 164, no. 6, pp. 942–948, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. V. A. Harpin, “The effect of ADHD on the life of an individual, their family, and community from preschool to adult life,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 90, supplement 1, pp. i2–i7, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. P. Hinshaw, L. E. Arnold, and The MTA Cooperative Group, “Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, multimodal treatment, and longitudinal outcome: evidence, paradox, and challenge,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 39–52, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. T. Brown, R. W. Amler, W. S. Freeman et al., “Treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: overview of the evidence,” Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. e749–e757, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. A. Safren, S. Sprich, M. J. Mimiaga et al., “Cognitive behavioral therapy vs relaxation with educational support for medication-treated adults with ADHD and persistent symptoms: a randomized controlled trial,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 304, no. 8, pp. 875–880, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. “ADD/ADHD treatment in children: finding treatments that work for kids and teens,” 2015, http://www.helpguide.org/articles/add-adhd/attention-deficit-disorder-adhd-treatment-in-children.htm.
  8. O. J. Storebø, M. Skoog, D. Damm, P. H. Thomsen, E. Simonsen, and C. Gluud, “Social skills training for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 12, Article ID CD008223, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Pellow, E. M. Solomon, and C. N. Barnard, “Complementary and alternative medical therapies for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),” Alternative Medicine Review, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 323–337, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Bader and A. Adesman, “Complementary and alternative therapies for children and adolescents with ADHD,” Current Opinion in Pediatrics, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 760–769, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. R. Searight, K. Robertson, T. Smith, S. Perkins, and B. K. Searight, “Complementary and alternative therapies for pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a descriptive review,” ISRN Psychiatry, vol. 2012, Article ID 804127, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. J. Prince, “Catecholamine dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an update,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 28, no. 3, supplement 2, pp. S39–S45, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Biederman, T. Spencer, and T. Wilens, “Evidence-based pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 77–97, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. L. Wolraich, C. J. Wibbelsman, T. E. Brown et al., “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among adolescents: a review of the diagnosis, treatment, and clinical implications,” Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. 1734–1746, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. W. Wong, D.-G. Kim, and J.-Y. Lee, “Traditional oriental herbal medicine for children and adolescents with ADHD: a systematic review,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 520198, 15 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. M. Rowles and R. L. Findling, “Review of pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-like symptoms in children and adolescents with developmental disorders,” Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 273–282, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. J. Heal, S. C. Cheetham, and S. L. Smith, “The neuropharmacology of ADHD drugs in vivo: insights on efficacy and safety,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 57, no. 7-8, pp. 608–618, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Lee, N. Grizenko, V. Bhat, S. Sengupta, A. Polotskaia, and R. Joober, “Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD,” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 11, article 70, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. Chan, L. A. Rappaport, and K. J. Kemper, “Complementary and alternative therapies in childhood attention and hyperactivity problems,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 4–8, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. G. Stubberfield, J. A. Wray, and T. S. Parry, “Utilization of alternative therapies in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 450–453, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Sinha and D. Efron, “Complementary and alternative medicine use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 41, no. 1-2, pp. 23–26, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. C. Ottolini, E. K. Hamburger, J. O. Loprieato et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine use among children in the Washington, DC area,” Ambulatory Pediatrics, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 122–125, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. U. P. Dave, S. R. Dingankar, V. S. Saxena et al., “An open-label study to elucidate the effects of standardized Bacopa monnieri extract in the management of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children,” Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 10–15, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Uebel-von Sandersleben, A. Rothenberger, B. Albrecht, L. G. Rothenberger, S. Klement, and N. Bock, “Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in children with ADHD: preliminary findings of an open multilevel dose-finding study,” Zeitschrift fur Kinder—und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 337–347, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Salehi, R. Imani, M. R. Mohammadi et al., “Ginkgo biloba for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a double blind, randomized controlled trial,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 76–80, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. H. Lee, W. S. Park, and M. H. Lim, “Clinical effects of korean red ginseng on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: an observational study,” Journal of Ginseng Research, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 226–234, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H.-J. Ko, I. Kim, J.-B. Kim et al., “Effects of Korean red ginseng extract on behavior in children with symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial,” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 501–508, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J.-J. Li, Z.-W. Li, S.-Z. Wang et al., “Ningdong granule: a complementary and alternative therapy in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 216, no. 4, pp. 501–509, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Akhondzadeh, M. R. Mohammadi, and F. Momeni, “Passiflora incarnata in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents,” Therapy, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 609–614, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Trebatická, S. Kopasová, Z. Hradečná et al., “Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol®,” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 329–335, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Z. Chovanová, J. Muchová, M. Sivoňová et al., “Effect of polyphenolic extract, Pycnogenol®, on the level of 8-oxoguanine in children suffering from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Free Radical Research, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 1003–1010, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. W. Weber, A. Vander Stoep, R. L. McCarty, N. S. Weiss, J. Biederman, and J. McClellan, “Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 299, no. 22, pp. 2633–2641, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Razlog, J. Pellow, and S. J. White, “A pilot study on the efficacy of Valeriana officinalis mother tincture and Valeriana officinalis 3X in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Health SA Gesondheid, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. G. Torrioli, S. Vernacotola, L. Peruzzi et al., “A double-blind, parallel, multicenter comparison of L-acetylcarnitine with placebo on the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in fragile X syndrome boys,” American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A, vol. 146, no. 7, pp. 803–812, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. E. Arnold, A. Amato, H. Bozzolo et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a multi-site, placebo-controlled pilot trial,” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 791–801, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. J. Richardson and B. K. Puri, “A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 233–239, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Stevens, W. Zhang, L. Peck et al., “EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors,” Lipids, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1007–1021, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. Sinn and J. Bryan, “Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 82–91, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. Sinn, J. Bryan, and C. Wilson, “Cognitive effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a randomised controlled trial,” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 78, no. 4-5, pp. 311–326, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. I. Manor, A. Magen, D. Keidar et al., “The effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension,” European Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 335–342, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Raz, R. L. Carasso, and S. Yehuda, “The influence of short-chain essential fatty acids on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 167–177, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. G. Voigt, A. M. Llorente, C. L. Jensen, J. K. Fraley, M. C. Berretta, and W. C. Heird, “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 189–196, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Hirayama, T. Hamazaki, and K. Terasawa, “Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-containing food administration on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder—a placebo-controlled double-blind study,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 467–473, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. Konofal, M. Lecendreux, J. Deron et al., “Effects of iron supplementation on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Mousain-Bosc, M. Roche, A. Polge, D. Pradal-Prat, J. Rapin, and J.-P. Bali, “Improvement of neurobehavioral disorders in children supplemented with magnesium-vitamin B6. I. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders,” Magnesium Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Bilici, F. Yıldırım, S. Kandil et al., “Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 181–190, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Akhondzadeh, M.-R. Mohammadi, and M. Khademi, “Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371],” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 4, article 9, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. E. Arnold, R. A. Disilvestro, D. Bozzolo et al., “Zinc for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: placebo-controlled double-blind pilot trial alone and combined with amphetamine,” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. R. Lyon, J. C. Cline, J. T. De Zepetnek, J. J. Shan, P. Pang, and C. Benishin, “Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study,” Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 221–228, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. J. Wang, H. Wei, and Y. Zhang, “Clinical observation of Jingling oral liquid combined with methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD with transient Tic disorder,” Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1638–1639, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  51. G.-A. Ding, G.-H. Yu, and S.-F. Chen, “Assessment on effect of treatment for childhood hyperkinetic syndrome by combined therapy of yizhi mixture and ritalin,” Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 255–257, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Dvořáková, M. Sivoňová, J. Trebatická et al., “The effect of polyphenolic extract from pine bark, Pycnogenol® on the level of glutathione in children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),” Redox Report, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 163–172, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Dvořáková, D. Ježová, P. Blažíček et al., “Urinary catecholamines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): modulation by a polyphenolic extract from pine bark (Pycnogenol®),” Nutritional Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 3-4, pp. 151–157, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Sarris, J. Kean, I. Schweitzer, and J. Lake, “Complementary medicines (herbal and nutritional products) in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a systematic review of the evidence,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 216–227, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. Sarris, “St. John’s wort for the treatment of psychiatric disorders,” The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Niederhofer, “St. John's wort may improve some symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Natural Product Research, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 203–205, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. Knörle, “Extracts of Sideritis scardica as triple monoamine reuptake inhibitors,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 119, no. 12, pp. 1477–1482, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. K. Blum, A. L. Chen, E. R. Braverman et al., “Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome,” The Journal of Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 893–918, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  59. M. Miroddi, G. Calapai, M. Navarra, P. L. Minciullo, and S. Gangemi, “Passiflora incarnata L.: ethnopharmacology, clinical application, safety and evaluation of clinical trials,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 791–804, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Y. Yoon, I. C. dela Peña, C. Y. Shin et al., “Convulsion-related activities of Scutellaria flavones are related to the 5,7-dihydroxyl structures,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 659, no. 2-3, pp. 155–160, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. I. C. dela Peña, S. Y. Yoon, Y. Kim et al., “5,7-Dihydroxy-6-methoxy-4′-phenoxyflavone, a derivative of oroxylin A improves attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behaviors in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 715, no. 1–3, pp. 337–344, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. Y. Yoon, I. dela Peña, S. M. Kim et al., “Oroxylin A improves attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors in the spontaneously hypertensive rat and inhibits reuptake of dopamine in vitro,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 134–140, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Y. Nam, E.-J. Shin, S. W. Shin et al., “YY162 prevents ADHD-like behavioral side effects and cytotoxicity induced by Aroclor1254 via interactive signaling between antioxidant potential, BDNF/TrkB, DAT and NET,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 65, pp. 280–292, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. W. Dimpfel, “Pharmacological classification of herbal extracts by means of comparison to spectral EEG signatures induced by synthetic drugs in the freely moving rat,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 583–589, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Panossian, G. Wikman, and J. Sarris, “Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy,” Phytomedicine, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 481–493, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. Ulbricht, W. Chao, S. Tanguay-Colucci et al., “Rhodiola (Rhodiola spp.): an evidence-based systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration,” Alternative and Complementary Therapies, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 110–119, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. E. M. G. Olsson, B. von Schéele, and A. G. Panossian, “A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract SHR-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue,” Planta Medica, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 105–112, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Bystritsky, L. Kerwin, and J. D. Feusner, “A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD),” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 175–180, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. V. Darbinyan, G. Aslanyan, E. Amroyan, E. Gabrielyan, C. Malmström, and A. Panossian, “Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression,” Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 343–348, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Q. G. Chen, Y. S. Zeng, Z. Q. Qu et al., “The effects of Rhodiola rosea extract on 5-HT level, cell proliferation and quantity of neurons at cerebral hippocampus of depressive rats,” Phytomedicine, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 830–838, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. J. Hillhouse, D. S. Ming, C. J. French, and G. H. N. Towers, “Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors in Rhodiola rosea,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 68–72, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. K. Joshi, S. Lad, M. Kale et al., “Supplementation with flax oil and vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 17–21, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. N. Joseph, Y. Zhang-James, A. Perl, and S. V. Faraone, “Oxidative stress and ADHD: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 915–924, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. C. K. Sen, S. Khanna, C. Rink, and S. Roy, “Tocotrienols: the emerging face of natural vitamin E,” Vitamins & Hormones, vol. 76, pp. 203–261, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. R. Burgess, L. Stevens, W. Zhang, and L. Peck, “Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 1, supplement, pp. 327S–330S, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. J. Rucklidge and B. J. Kaplan, “Broad-spectrum micronutrient treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: rationale and evidence to date,” CNS Drugs, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 775–785, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. L. E. Arnold, “Treatment alternatives for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),” The Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 30–48, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. J. Rucklidge, J. Johnstone, and B. J. Kaplan, “Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 461–476, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. B. Starobrat-Hermelin and T. Kozielec, “The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test,” Magnesium Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 149–156, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. H. A. Gordon, J. J. Rucklidge, N. M. Blampied, and J. M. Johnstone, “Clinically significant symptom reduction in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treated with micronutrients: an open-label reversal design study,” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 783–798, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. A. L. Lardner, “Neurobiological effects of the green tea constituent theanine and its potential role in the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders,” Nutritional Neuroscience, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 145–155, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. H. Bloch and A. Qawasmi, “Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 991–1000, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. J. Sorgi, E. M. Hallowell, H. L. Hutchins, and B. Sears, “Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 6, article 16, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. R. Raz and L. Gabis, “Essential fatty acids and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review,” Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 580–592, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. C. M. Milte, N. Parletta, J. D. Buckley, A. M. Coates, R. M. Young, and P. R. C. Howe, “Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, cognition, and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized controlled trial,” Nutrition, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 670–677, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. D. Gillies, J. K. Sinn, S. S. Lad, M. J. Leach, and M. J. Ross, “Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 7, Article ID CD007986, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. E. J. Sonuga-Barke, D. Brandeis, S. Cortese et al., “Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 170, no. 3, pp. 275–289, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. P. S. Jensen, S. P. Hinshaw, J. M. Swanson et al., “Findings from the NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA): implications and applications for primary care providers,” Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 60–73, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. S. P. Hinshaw and L. E. Arnold, “Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, multimodal treatment, and longitudinal outcome: evidence, paradox, and challenge,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 39–52, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus