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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 2932784, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2932784
Research Article

Direct Spinal Ventral Root Repair following Avulsion: Effectiveness of a New Heterologous Fibrin Sealant on Motoneuron Survival and Regeneration

1Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, 13083-030 Campinas, SP, Brazil
2The School of Medicine at Mucuri (FAMMUC), Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM), 39803-371 Teófilo Otoni, MG, Brazil
3Department of Tropical Diseases, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 18618-000 Botucatu, SP, Brazil
4Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP), São Paulo State University (UNESP), 18610-307 Botucatu, SP, Brazil

Received 7 April 2016; Revised 7 July 2016; Accepted 18 July 2016

Academic Editor: Preston E. Garraghty

Copyright © 2016 Mateus Vidigal de Castro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Axonal injuries at the interface between central and peripheral nervous system, such as ventral root avulsion (VRA), induce important degenerative processes, mostly resulting in neuronal and motor function loss. In the present work, we have compared two different fibrin sealants, one derived from human blood and another derived from animal blood and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, as a promising treatment for this type of injury. Lewis rats were submitted to VRA (L4–L6) and had the avulsed roots reimplanted to the surface of the spinal cord, with the aid of fibrin sealant. The spinal cords were processed to evaluate neuronal survival, synaptic stability, and glial reactivity, 4 and 12 weeks after lesion. Sciatic nerves were processed to investigate Schwann cell activity by expression (4 weeks after surgery) and to count myelinated axons and morphometric evaluation (12 weeks after surgery). Walking track test was used to evaluate gait recovery, up to 12 weeks. The results indicate that both fibrin sealants are similarly efficient. However, the snake-derived fibrin glue is a potentially safer alternative for being a biological and biodegradable product which does not contain human blood derivatives. Therefore, the venom glue can be a useful tool for the scientific community due to its advantages and variety of applications.