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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2016, Article ID 3760702, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3760702
Research Article

Cellular Zinc Homeostasis Contributes to Neuronal Differentiation in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

1Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, Germany
2Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
3Institute of Neuroanatomy, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
4WG Molecular Analysis of Synaptopathies, Neurology Department, Neurocenter of Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, Germany

Received 23 February 2016; Accepted 24 March 2016

Academic Editor: Bruno Poucet

Copyright © 2016 Stefanie Pfaender et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Disturbances in neuronal differentiation and function are an underlying factor of many brain disorders. Zinc homeostasis and signaling are important mediators for a normal brain development and function, given that zinc deficiency was shown to result in cognitive and emotional deficits in animal models that might be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. One underlying mechanism of the observed detrimental effects of zinc deficiency on the brain might be impaired proliferation and differentiation of stem cells participating in neurogenesis. Thus, to examine the molecular mechanisms regulating zinc metabolism and signaling in differentiating neurons, using a protocol for motor neuron differentiation, we characterized the expression of zinc homeostasis genes during neurogenesis using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and evaluated the influence of altered zinc levels on the expression of zinc homeostasis genes, cell survival, cell fate, and neuronal function. Our results show that zinc transporters are highly regulated genes during neuronal differentiation and that low zinc levels are associated with decreased cell survival, altered neuronal differentiation, and, in particular, synaptic function. We conclude that zinc deficiency in a critical time window during brain development might influence brain function by modulating neuronal differentiation.