Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Neural Plasticity
Volume 2016, Article ID 4058620, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4058620
Research Article

Bilingualism and Musicianship Enhance Cognitive Control

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, 2240 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208, USA

Received 10 June 2015; Accepted 4 August 2015

Academic Editor: Etienne de Villers-Sidani

Copyright © 2016 Scott R. Schroeder et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Bialystok, F. I. M. Craik, R. Klein, and M. Viswanathan, “Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: evidence from the Simon task,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 290–303, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Costa, M. Hernández, and N. Sebastián-Gallés, “Bilingualism aids conflict resolution: evidence from the ANT task,” Cognition, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 59–86, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. D. Hilchey and R. M. Klein, “Are there bilingual advantages on nonlinguistic interference tasks? Implications for the plasticity of executive control processes,” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 625–658, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. B. Morton and S. N. Harper, “What did Simon say? Revisiting the bilingual advantage,” Developmental Science, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 719–726, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. R. Paap and Z. I. Greenberg, “There is no coherent evidence for a bilingual advantage in executive processing,” Cognitive Psychology, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 232–258, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Bialystok and A.-M. DePape, “Musical expertise, bilingualism, and executive functioning,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 565–574, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Moradzadeh, G. Blumenthal, and M. Wiseheart, “Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance,” Cognitive Science, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 992–1020, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. K. Blumenfeld and V. Marian, “Bilingualism influences inhibitory control in auditory comprehension,” Cognition, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 245–257, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. Marian and M. Spivey, “Competing activation in bilingual language processing: within- and between-language competition,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 97–115, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. H. Blumenfeld and V. Marian, “Constraints on parallel activation in bilingual spoken language processing: examining proficiency and lexical status using eye-tracking,” Language and Cognitive Processes, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 633–660, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Ju and P. A. Luce, “Falling on sensitive ears: constraints on bilingual lexical activation,” Psychological Science, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 314–318, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Shook and V. Marian, “The bilingual language interaction network for comprehension of speech,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 304–324, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Dijkstra and W. J. Van Heuven, “The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: from identification to decision,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 175–197, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. N. Hoshino and J. F. Kroll, “Cognate effects in picture naming: does cross-language activation survive a change of script?” Cognition, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 501–511, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. W. Green, “Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 67–81, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Hernández, A. Costa, L. J. Fuentes, A. B. Vivas, and N. Sebastián-Gallés, “The impact of bilingualism on the executive control and orienting networks of attention,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 315–325, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Costa, M. Hernández, J. Costa-Faidella, and N. Sebastián-Gallés, “On the bilingual advantage in conflict processing: now you see it, now you don't,” Cognition, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 135–149, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Marzecová, D. Asanowicz, L. Krivá, and Z. Wodniecka, “The effects of bilingualism on efficiency and lateralization of attentional networks,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 608–623, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Abutalebi, P. A. Della Rosa, D. W. Green et al., “Bilingualism tunes the anterior cingulate cortex for conflict monitoring,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 2076–2086, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. C. M. Gathercole, E. M. Thomas, I. Kennedy et al., “Does language dominance affect cognitive performance in bilinguals? Lifespan evidence from preschoolers through older adults on card sorting, Simon, and metalinguistic tasks,” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 5, article 11, 14 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. W. Kirk, L. Fiala, K. C. Scott-Brown, and V. Kempe, “No evidence for reduced Simon cost in elderly bilinguals and bidialectals,” Journal of Cognitive Psychology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 640–648, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Kousaie and N. A. Phillips, “Ageing and bilingualism: absence of a ‘bilingual advantage’ in Stroop interference in a nonimmigrant sample,” The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 356–369, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Bialystok, F. Craik, and G. Luk, “Cognitive control and lexical access in younger and older bilinguals,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 859–873, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Dalla Bella, I. Peretz, and N. Aronoff, “Time course of melody recognition: a gating paradigm study,” Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 1019–1028, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. D. Schulkind, R. J. Posner, and D. C. Rubin, “Musical features that facilitate melody identification: how do you know it's ‘your’ song when they finally play it?” Music Perception, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 217–249, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. E. Altenmüller, “Cortical DC-potentials as electrophysiological correlates of hemispheric dominance of higher cognitive functions,” International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 47, no. 1-2, pp. 1–14, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Ohnishi, H. Matsuda, T. Asada et al., “Functional anatomy of musical perception in musicians,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 754–760, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Travis, H. S. Harung, and Y. Lagrosen, “Moral development, executive functioning, peak experiences and brain patterns in professional and amateur classical musicians: interpreted in light of a Unified Theory of Performance,” Consciousness and Cognition, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1256–1264, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Amer, B. Kalender, L. Hasher, S. E. Trehub, and Y. Wong, “Do older professional musicians have cognitive advantages?” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, Article ID e71630, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. V. Sluming, T. Barrick, M. Howard, E. Cezayirli, A. Mayes, and N. Roberts, “Voxel-based morphometry reveals increased gray matter density in Broca's area in male symphony orchestra musicians,” NeuroImage, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 1613–1622, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. Bialystok, “Effect of bilingualism and computer video game experience on the Simon task,” Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 68–79, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. A. Calvo and E. Bialystok, “Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning,” Cognition, vol. 130, no. 3, pp. 278–288, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. V. Marian, H. K. Blumenfeld, and M. Kaushanskaya, “The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): assessing language profiles in bilinguals and multilinguals,” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 940–967, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Shook, V. Marian, J. Bartolotti, and S. R. Schroeder, “Musical experience influences statistical learning of a novel language,” The American Journal of Psychology, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 95–104, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Musacchia, M. Sams, E. Skoe, and N. Kraus, “Musicians have enhanced subcortical auditory and audiovisual processing of speech and music,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 40, pp. 15894–15898, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Á. M. Kovács and J. Mehler, “Cognitive gains in 7-month-old bilingual infants,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 16, pp. 6556–6560, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. K. Blumenfeld and V. Marian, “Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals,” Journal of Cognitive Psychology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 547–567, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. L. Long and C. S. Prat, “Working memory and stroop interference: an individual differences investigation,” Memory & Cognition, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 294–301, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. A. Steinberg, L. A. Bieliauskas, G. E. Smith, and R. J. Ivnik, “Mayo's older Americans normative studies: age- and IQ-adjusted norms for the trail-making test, the stroop test, and MAE controlled oral word association test,” The Clinical Neuropsychologist, vol. 19, no. 3-4, pp. 329–377, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. J. Weiss, C. Gerfen, and A. D. Mitchel, “Colliding cues in word segmentation: the role of cue strength and general cognitive processes,” Language and Cognitive Processes, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 402–422, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. L. Coderre, W. J. B. van Heuven, and K. Conklin, “The timing and magnitude of Stroop interference and facilitation in monolinguals and bilinguals,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 420–441, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. C. Wright and A. Wanley, “Adults' versus children's performance on the Stroop task: interference and facilitation,” British Journal of Psychology, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 475–485, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. L. Salvatierra and M. Rosselli, “The effect of bilingualism and age on inhibitory control,” International Journal of Bilingualism, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 26–37, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. R. Schroeder and V. Marian, “A bilingual advantage for episodic memory in older adults,” Journal of Cognitive Psychology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 591–601, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. Emmorey, G. Luk, J. E. Pyers, and E. Bialystok, “The source of enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals evidence from bimodal bilinguals,” Psychological Science, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1201–1206, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. R. Giezen, H. K. Blumenfeld, A. Shook, V. Marian, and K. Emmorey, “Parallel language activation and inhibitory control in bimodal bilinguals,” Cognition, vol. 141, pp. 9–25, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. B. N. Macnamara and A. R. A. Conway, “Novel evidence in support of the bilingual advantage: influences of task demands and experience on cognitive control and working memory,” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 520–525, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. D. Patel, “Why would musical training benefit the neural encoding of speech? The OPERA hypothesis,” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 2, article 142, 14 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. T. Cirino, C. E. Chin, R. A. Sevcik, M. Wolf, M. Lovett, and R. D. Morris, “Measuring socioeconomic status: reliability and preliminary validity for different approaches,” Assessment, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 145–155, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. H. Gollan, G. H. Weissberger, E. Runnqvist, R. I. Montoya, and C. M. Cera, “Self-ratings of spoken language dominance: a Multilingual Naming Test (MINT) and preliminary norms for young and aging Spanish-English bilinguals,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 594–615, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. R. Best, P. H. Miller, and J. A. Naglieri, “Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample,” Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 327–336, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. N. R. Riggs, L. B. Jahromi, R. P. Razza, J. E. Dilworth-Bart, and U. Mueller, “Executive function and the promotion of social-emotional competence,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 300–309, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar