Table 1: Differences between males and females with regard to AHN.

ModelIntervention/behavioral paradigmDifferences in AHN between males and femalesDifferences in anxious behavior between males and femalesDifferences in other types of behavior between males and femalesReference

PND70–90 Sprague-Dawley ratsEyeblink conditioningTwice more new cells (mainly neuroblasts) survived in the female than in the male hippocampusFemales learned to time the conditioned response faster than males[63]

380 g (male) and 240 g (female) Wistar ratsExposure to stressors↑ proliferation in the DG of females compared to males; ↑ DCX in the DG of males compared to femalesFemales showed ↑ basal and stress-induced HPA axis activity compared to males[87]

PND80–90 Sprague-Dawley ratsTreatment with E2 or sesame oil↑ proliferation, ↓ cell death, and ↓ survival in the DG of females; males were affected minimallyFemale rats froze less than males after contextual fear conditioning [106]

PND80–90 Sprague-Dawley ratsTreatment with E2 benzoate↓ survival, ↑ proliferation, ↓ cell death in the DG of females, and no effect in males[80]

3-month-old Wistar rats Chronic stress↓ BrdU labelling in males, but ↑ in females[82]

250–300 g Sprague-Dawley ratsAcute stress (exposure to a predator odor)↓ proliferation, ↓ cell death in males but not in females [95]

PND58–62 Sprague-Dawley ratsSpatial task↑ BrdU-labeled cells in males, ↑ cell activation in females but not in malesMales performed better in the spatial but not cue task than females[107]

2-3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats Acute stress↓ proliferation in male hippocampus but not in femaleExposure to stress significantly ↓ learning ability in females but ↑ in males; males expressed more helplessness behavior than females[94]

2-3-month-old Swiss CD1 mice Treatment with MXC↑ survival in males compared to femalesMale mice exhibited ↓ contextual conditioned freezing compared to females[91]

3-month-old Sprague-Dawley ratsPRS↓ number of new neurons in the DG and ↑ BDNF levels in males but not in femalesMales showed ↑ anxiety, while females displayed ↓ anxiety in the EPM[93]

PND63–65; PND24–26 (peripubescent) Sprague-Dawley ratsFluoxetine treatment↑ cell proliferation in males but not in females
↓ cell survival in females but not in males
[97]

C57Bl/6J miceES (limited nesting/bedding material)↓ cell survival only in malesMales showed impaired cognitive performance in the ORT, OLT, and MWM, compared to females[100]

AHN = adult hippocampal neurogenesis; BDNF = brain-derived neurotrophic factor; BrdU = bromodeoxyuridine; DG = dentate gyrus; DHT = dihydrotestosterone; DCX = doublecortin; EPM = elevated plus maze; ES = early life stress; E2 = estradiol; MXC = methoxychlor (organochlorine insecticide); PND = postnatal day; PRS = prenatal restraint stress; SVZ = subventricular zone; T = testosterone; ES = early life stress; ORT = object recognition task; OLT = object location task; MWM = Morris water maze.