Individual Differences in Behavioural Despair Predict Brain GSK-3beta Expression in Mice: The Power of a Modified Swim Test
Behavioural changes induced in the modified swim test and the role of context, swimming, and timing of testing. (a) Mice exposed to the modified swim test () showed an increase of total duration of floating. (b–d) An increase of duration of floating at the delayed testing session on Day 5 in comparison to the session on Day 2 was the pronounced during the first two-minute periods. (e) In comparison to the session on Day 2, mice subjected to the modified swim test have displayed significantly increased total duration of floating when the testing on Day 2 was replaced with exposure to a context of testing () that was similar to the changes in regular modified swim test, but not when the testing on Day 2 was omitted (). Data are expressed in percent from mean values of floating on Day 1 for each group. (f) Mice displayed a significant increase in the total duration of floating on Day 3 as compared to Day 1, but not Day 2 (). , ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparisons test; see the text; Context D2: mice were exposed to a context of testing instead of swim session on Day 2; no testing D2: testing on Day 2 was omitted. D1: Day 1; D2: Day 2; D3: Day 3; D5: Day 5. Data are mean ± SEM.