Individual Differences in Behavioural Despair Predict Brain GSK-3beta Expression in Mice: The Power of a Modified Swim Test
The effects of imipramine on floating behaviour and brain GSK-3beta activities in the modified swim test. (a) Imipramine-treated mice () showed no significant increase of floating behaviour as compared with control group (), from Day 2 to Day 5. As compared to intact controls (), on Day 5, GSK-3beta mRNA of imipramine-treated mice was (b) decreased in the hippocampus and (с) not changed in the prefrontal cortex; group sizes as indicated above. (d) As compared to intact mice, imipramine-treated group had significantly increased ratio of total/pS9 of GSK-3beta in the hippocampus on Day 5; group sizes as indicated above. (e) As compared with intact mice, there were no significant changes the in ratio of pS9 GSK-3beta /total GSK-3beta in the prefrontal cortex of imipramine-treated mice on Day 5 of swim test; group sizes as indicated above. , ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparisons test; see the text; Imi: imipramine-treated group; D1: Day 1; D2: Day 2; D5: Day 5. Data are mean ± SEM.