Activation of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Enhances Hippocampus Neurogenesis in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury: An Involvement of MEK/Erk Signaling Pathway
S1PR1-induced NSCs proliferation and neuronal differentiation in TBI rats were affected by MEK/Erk activity. (a, b) Representative IF microphotographs of hippocampus immunolabeled with BrdU/SOX2 and BrdU/NeuN in TBI+SEW, TBI+SEW+U0126, TBI+VPC, and TBI+VPC+ERN groups at 7 days and 28 days after trauma ( in each group). (c, d) Statistical analysis showed that, compared to TBI+SEW group, administration of U0126 significantly decreased the number of BrdU+/SOX2+ cells and BrdU+/NeuN+ cells in TBI+SEW+U0126 group. Reversely, the double-labeled cells in TBI+VPC+ERN group were significantly increased compared with TBI+VPC group. Scale bar: 50 μm. versus TBI+SEW group; versus TBI+VPC group.