Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Neural Plasticity
Volume 2016, Article ID 8428256, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8428256
Review Article

Taking Sides: An Integrative Review of the Impact of Laterality and Polarity on Efficacy of Therapeutic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Anomia in Chronic Poststroke Aphasia

Neuroscience and Aphasia Research Unit, School of Psychological Sciences, 3rd Floor, Zochonis Building, University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL, UK

Received 16 April 2015; Revised 10 August 2015; Accepted 24 August 2015

Academic Editor: Chul-Hee Choi

Copyright © 2016 Margaret Sandars et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Goodglass and E. Kaplan, The Assessment of Aphasia and Related Disorders, Lee & Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1972.
  2. K. Hilari, J. J. Needle, and K. L. Harrison, “What are the important factors in health-related quality of life for people with aphasia? A systematic review,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 93, no. 1, supplement, pp. S86–S95.e4, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Hickok and D. Poeppel, “The cortical organization of speech processing,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 393–402, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. A. Postman-Caucheteux, R. M. Birn, R. H. Pursley et al., “Single-trial fMRI shows contralesional activity linked to overt naming errors in chronic aphasic patients,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1299–1318, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. M. Pedersen, K. Vinter, and T. S. Olsen, “Aphasia after stroke: type, severity and prognosis,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. A. Lambon Ralph, C. Snell, J. K. Fillingham, P. Conroy, and K. Sage, “Predicting the outcome of anomia therapy for people with aphasia post CVA: both language and cognitive status are key predictors,” Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 289–305, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. Best, J. Grassly, A. Greenwood, R. Herbert, J. Hickin, and D. Howard, “A controlled study of changes in conversation following aphasia therapy for anomia,” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 229–242, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Conroy, K. Sage, and M. L. Ralph, “Improved vocabulary production after naming therapy in aphasia: can gains in picture naming generalize to connected speech?” International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1036–1062, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. de Aguiar, C. L. Paolazzi, and G. Miceli, “tDCS in post-stroke aphasia: the role of stimulation parameters, behavioral treatment and patient characteristics,” Cortex, vol. 63, pp. 296–316, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. V. Costa, “Use of noninvasive cerebral stimulation techniques in aphasia: an updating,” Acta Medica Mediterranea, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 105–108, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Elsner, J. Kugler, M. Pohl, and J. Mehrholz, “Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for improving aphasia in patients after stroke,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 6, Article ID CD009760, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Holland and J. Crinion, “Can tDCS enhance treatment of aphasia after stroke?” Aphasiology, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1169–1191, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Monti, R. Ferrucci, M. Fumagalli et al., “Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and language,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 84, no. 8, pp. 832–842, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Torres, D. Drebing, and R. Hamilton, “TMS and tDCS in post-stroke aphasia: Integrating novel treatment approaches with mechanisms of plasticity,” Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 501–515, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. S. Dell, M. F. Schwartz, N. Martin, E. M. Saffran, and D. A. Gagnon, “Lexical access in aphasic and nonaphasic speakers,” Psychological Review, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 801–838, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. J. M. Levelt, A. Roelofs, and A. S. Meyer, “A theory of lexical access in speech production,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–38, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Indefrey, “The spatial and temporal signatures of word production components: a critical update,” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 2, article 255, Article ID Article 255, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. Hickok and D. Poeppel, “Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language,” Cognition, vol. 92, no. 1-2, pp. 67–99, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Ueno, S. Saito, T. T. Rogers, and M. A. Lambon Ralph, “Lichtheim 2: synthesizing aphasia and the neural basis of language in a neurocomputational model of the dual dorsal-ventral language pathways,” Neuron, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 385–396, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. I. DeWitt and J. P. Rauschecker, “Wernicke's area revisited: parallel streams and word processing,” Brain and Language, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 181–191, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Knecht, B. Dräger, M. Deppe et al., “Handedness and hemispheric language dominance in healthy humans,” Brain, vol. 123, no. 12, pp. 2512–2518, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. Indefrey and W. J. M. Levelt, “The neural correlates of language production,” in The New Cognitive Neurosciences, M. S. Gazzaniga, Ed., pp. 845–865, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  23. C. J. Price, “The anatomy of language: a review of 100 fMRI studies published in 2009,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1191, no. 1, pp. 62–88, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. J. Price, “A review and synthesis of the first 20 years of PET and fMRI studies of heard speech, spoken language and reading,” NeuroImage, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 816–847, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. M. Wilson, A. L. Isenberg, and G. Hickok, “Neural correlates of word production stages delineated by parametric modulation of psycholinguistic variables,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 3596–3608, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. A. Butler, M. A. L. Ralph, and A. M. Woollams, “Capturing multidimensionality in stroke aphasia: mapping principal behavioural components to neural structures,” Brain, vol. 137, no. 12, pp. 3248–3266, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. I. Henseler, F. Regenbrecht, and H. Obrig, “Lesion correlates of patholinguistic profiles in chronic aphasia: comparisons of syndrome-, modality- and symptom-level assessment,” Brain, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 918–930, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. V. Baldo, A. Arévalo, J. P. Patterson, and N. F. Dronkers, “Grey and white matter correlates of picture naming: evidence from a voxel-based lesion analysis of the Boston Naming Test,” Cortex, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 658–667, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. Piras and P. Marangolo, “Noun-verb naming in aphasia: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study,” NeuroReport, vol. 18, no. 14, pp. 1455–1458, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. B. Marsh and A. E. Hillis, “Recovery from aphasia following brain injury: the role of reorganization,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 157, pp. 143–156, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. E. Hillis, J. T. Kleinman, M. Newhart et al., “Restoring cerebral blood flow reveals neural regions critical for naming,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 31, pp. 8069–8073, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. E. Hillis, L. Gold, V. Kannan et al., “Site of the ischemic penumbra as a predictor of potential for recovery of functions,” Neurology, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 184–189, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. J. Price, E. A. Warburton, C. J. Moore, R. S. J. Frackowiak, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic diaschisis: anatomically remote and context-sensitive human brain lesions,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 419–429, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Saur, R. Lange, A. Baumgaertner et al., “Dynamics of language reorganization after stroke,” Brain, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 1371–1384, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Jarso, M. Li, A. Faria et al., “Distinct mechanisms and timing of language recovery after stroke,” Cognitive Neuropsychology, vol. 30, no. 7-8, pp. 454–475, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. Anglade, A. Thiel, and A. I. Ansaldo, “The complementary role of the cerebral hemispheres in recovery from aphasia after stroke: a critical review of literature,” Brain Injury, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 138–145, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. P. Szaflarski, J. B. Allendorfer, C. Banks, J. Vannest, and S. K. Holland, “Recovered vs. not-recovered from post-stroke aphasia: the contributions from the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres,” Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 347–360, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. E. Turkeltaub, S. Messing, C. Norise, and R. H. Hamilton, “Are networks for residual language function and recovery consistent across aphasic patients?” Neurology, vol. 76, no. 20, pp. 1726–1734, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Fridriksson, L. Bonilha, J. M. Baker, D. Moser, and C. Rorden, “Activity in preserved left hemisphere regions predicts anomia severity in aphasia,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1013–1019, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. E. Turkeltaub, H. B. Coslett, A. L. Thomas et al., “The right hemisphere is not unitary in its role in aphasia recovery,” Cortex, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1179–1186, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. I. Martin, M. A. Naeser, M. Ho et al., “Overt naming fMRI pre- and post-TMS: two nonfluent aphasia patients, with and without improved naming post-TMS,” Brain & Language, vol. 111, pp. 20–35, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  42. D. Perani, S. F. Cappa, M. Tettamanti et al., “A fMRI study of word retrieval in aphasia,” Brain & Language, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 357–368, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. A. Naeser, P. I. Martin, E. H. Baker et al., “Overt propositional speech in chronic nonfluent aphasia studied with the dynamic susceptibility contrast fMRI method,” NeuroImage, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 29–41, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. H. Hamilton, E. G. Chrysikou, and B. Coslett, “Mechanisms of aphasia recovery after stroke and the role of noninvasive brain stimulation,” Brain and Language, vol. 118, no. 1-2, pp. 40–50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. Marcotte, D. Adrover-Roig, B. Damien et al., “Therapy-induced neuroplasticity in chronic aphasia,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1776–1786, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Meinzer, T. Flaisch, C. Breitenstein, C. Wienbruch, T. Elbert, and B. Rockstroh, “Functional re-recruitment of dysfunctional brain areas predicts language recovery in chronic aphasia,” NeuroImage, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 2038–2046, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Fridriksson, “Preservation and modulation of specific left hemisphere regions is vital for treated recovery from anomia in stroke,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 30, no. 35, pp. 11558–11564, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Fridriksson, “Measuring and inducing brain plasticity in chronic aphasia,” Journal of Communication Disorders, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 557–563, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Fridriksson, J. D. Richardson, P. Fillmore, and B. Cai, “Left hemisphere plasticity and aphasia recovery,” NeuroImage, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 854–863, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. Menke, M. Meinzer, H. Kugel et al., “Imaging short- and long-term training success in chronic aphasia,” BMC Neuroscience, vol. 10, article118, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. W.-D. Heiss and A. Thiel, “A proposed regional hierarchy in recovery of post-stroke aphasia,” Brain & Language, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 118–123, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Naeser, T. Hugo, M. Kobayashi et al., “Modulation of cortical areas with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to improve naming in nonfluent aphasia,” NeuroImage, vol. 16, no. 2, abstract 13, 2002, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Functional Mapping of the Human Brain. View at Google Scholar
  53. M. A. Naeser, P. I. Martin, M. Nicholas et al., “Improved picture naming in chronic aphasia after TMS to part of right Broca's area: an open-protocol study,” Brain & Language, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 95–105, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. H. S. Barwood, B. E. Murdoch, B.-M. Whelan et al., “The effects of low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and sham condition rTMS on behavioural language in chronic non-fluent aphasia: short term outcomes,” NeuroRehabilitation, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 113–128, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. M. Lazar and D. Antoniello, “Variability in recovery from aphasia,” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 497–502, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Cotelli, A. Fertonani, A. Miozzo et al., “Anomia training and brain stimulation in chronic aphasia,” Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 717–741, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. N. Weiduschat, A. Thiel, I. Rubi-Fessen et al., “Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in aphasic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 409–415, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. F. Cappa, M. Sandrini, P. M. Rossini, K. Sosta, and C. Miniussi, “The role of the left frontal lobe in action naming: rTMS evidence,” Neurology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 720–723, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  59. M. Cotelli, R. Manenti, S. F. Cappa, O. Zanetti, and C. Miniussi, “Transcranial magnetic stimulation improves naming in Alzheimer disease patients at different stages of cognitive decline,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1286–1292, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. A. Kaminski, F. M. Korb, A. Villringer, and D. V. M. Ott, “Transcranial magnetic stimulation intensities in cognitive paradigms,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 9, Article ID e24836, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. J. Stagg and M. A. Nitsche, “Physiological basis of transcranial direct current stimulation,” The Neuroscientist, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 37–53, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. A. Nitsche and W. Paulus, “Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 527, no. 3, pp. 633–639, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. L. F. Medeiros, I. C. C. de Souza, L. P. Vidor et al., “Neurobiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: a review,” Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol. 3, article 110, Article ID Article 110, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. C. A. Dockery, R. Hueckel-Weng, N. Birbaumer, and C. Plewnia, “Enhancement of planning ability by transcranial direct current stimulation,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 22, pp. 7271–7277, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. A. Nitsche, K. Fricke, U. Henschke et al., “Pharmacological modulation of cortical excitability shifts induced by transcranial direct current stimulation in humans,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 553, no. 1, pp. 293–301, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. A. Nitsche, D. Liebetanz, N. Lang et al., “Safety criteria for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in humans,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 114, no. 11, pp. 2220–2223, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. O. Hebb, The Organization of Behavior, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1949.
  68. T. V. P. Bliss and T. Lomo, “Long lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 232, no. 2, pp. 331–356, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. C. J. Stagg, J. G. Best, M. C. Stephenson et al., “Polarity-sensitive modulation of cortical neurotransmitters by transcranial stimulation,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 16, pp. 5202–5206, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M.-F. Kuo, J. Grosch, F. Fregni, W. Paulus, and M. A. Nitsche, “Focusing effect of acetylcholine on neuroplasticity in the human motor cortex,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 27, no. 52, pp. 14442–14447, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. A. Nitsche, M.-F. Kuo, R. Karrasch, B. Wächter, D. Liebetanz, and W. Paulus, “Serotonin affects transcranial direct current-induced neuroplasticity in humans,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 503–508, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M.-F. Kuo, W. Paulus, and M. A. Nitsche, “Boosting focally-induced brain plasticity by dopamine,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 648–651, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. Monte-Silva, M.-F. Kuo, N. Thirugnanasambandam, D. Liebetanz, W. Paulus, and M. A. Nitsche, “Dose-dependent inverted U-shaped effect of dopamine (D2-like) receptor activation on focal and nonfocal plasticity in humans,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 19, pp. 6124–6131, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. P. C. Miranda, M. Lomarev, and M. Hallett, “Modeling the current distribution during transcranial direct current stimulation,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 117, no. 7, pp. 1623–1629, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. X. Zheng, D. C. Alsop, and G. Schlaug, “Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on human regional cerebral blood flow,” NeuroImage, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 26–33, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C. Peña-Gómez, R. Sala-Lonch, C. Junqué et al., “Modulation of large-scale brain networks by transcranial direct current stimulation evidenced by resting-state functional MRI,” Brain Stimulation, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 252–263, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. K. Suzuki, T. Fujiwara, N. Tanaka et al., “Comparison of the after-effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over the motor cortex in patients with stroke and healthy volunteers,” International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 122, no. 11, pp. 675–681, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. Datta, J. M. Baker, M. Bikson, and J. Fridriksson, “Individualized model predicts brain current flow during transcranial direct-current stimulation treatment in responsive stroke patient,” Brain Stimulation, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 169–174, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. P. Brasil-Neto, “Learning, memory and transcranial direct current stimulation,” Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol. 3, article 80, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. J. Butler, M. Shuster, E. O'Hara, K. Hurley, D. Middlebrooks, and K. Guilkey, “A meta-analysis of the efficacy of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation for upper limb motor recovery in stroke survivors,” Journal of Hand Therapy, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 162–171, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. F. Fregni, P. S. Boggio, C. G. Mansur et al., “Transcranial direct current stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere in stroke patients,” NeuroReport, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 1551–1555, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. R. Holland, A. P. Leff, O. Josephs et al., “Speech facilitation by left inferior frontal cortex stimulation,” Current Biology, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 1403–1407, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. A. Nitsche, L. G. Cohen, E. M. Wassermann et al., “Transcranial direct current stimulation: state of the art 2008,” Brain Stimulation, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 206–223, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. Poreisz, K. Boros, A. Antal, and W. Paulus, “Safety aspects of transcranial direct current stimulation concerning healthy subjects and patients,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 72, no. 4–6, pp. 208–214, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S. Rossi, M. Hallett, P. M. Rossini et al., “Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 120, no. 12, pp. 2008–2039, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. A. Flöel, N. Rösser, O. Michka, S. Knecht, and C. Breitenstein, “Noninvasive brain stimulation improves language learning,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1415–1422, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. K. Kessler, P. E. Turkeltaub, J. G. Benson, and R. H. Hamilton, “Differences in the experience of active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation,” Brain Stimulation, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 155–162, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. J. E. Dundas, G. W. Thickbroom, and F. L. Mastaglia, “Perception of comfort during transcranial DC stimulation: effect of NaCl solution concentration applied to sponge electrodes,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. 1166–1170, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. Flöel, M. Meinzer, R. Kirstein et al., “Short-term anomia training and electrical brain stimulation,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 2065–2067, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. Monti, F. Cogiamanian, S. Marceglia et al., “Improved naming after transcranial direct current stimulation in aphasia,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 451–453, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. C. Volpato, M. Cavinato, F. Piccione, M. Garzon, F. Meneghello, and N. Birbaumer, “Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of Broca's area in chronic aphasia: a controlled outcome study,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 247, pp. 211–216, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J. M. Baker, C. Rorden, and J. Fridriksson, “Using transcranial direct-current stimulation to treat stroke patients with aphasia,” Stroke, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1229–1236, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. Fridriksson, J. D. Richardson, J. M. Baker, and C. Rorden, “Transcranial direct current stimulation improves naming reaction time in fluent aphasia: a double-blind, sham-controlled study,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 819–821, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. V. Fiori, M. Coccia, C. V. Marinelli et al., “Transcranial direct current stimulation improves word retrieval in healthy and nonfluent aphasic subjects,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 2309–2323, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. V. Fiori, S. Cipollari, M. Di Paola, C. Razzano, C. Caltagirone, and P. Marangolo, “tDCS stimulation segregates words in the brain: evidence from aphasia,” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, vol. 7, article 269, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. P. Marangolo, V. Fiori, M. Di Paola et al., “Differential involvement of the left frontal and temporal regions in verb naming: a tDCS treatment study,” Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. L. Vestito, S. Rosellini, M. Mantero, and F. Bandini, “Long-term effects of transcranial direct-current stimulation in chronic post-stroke aphasia: a pilot study,” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, vol. 8, article 785, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. E. K. Kang, Y. K. Kim, H. M. Sohn, L. G. Cohen, and N.-J. Paik, “Improved picture naming in aphasia patients treated with cathodal tDCS to inhibit the right Broca's homologue area,” Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 141–152, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. C. Rosso, V. Perlbarg, R. Valabregue et al., “Broca's area damage is necessary but not sufficient to induce after-effects of cathodal tDCS on the unaffected hemisphere in post-stroke aphasia,” Brain Stimulation, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 627–635, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. S. Y. Lee, H.-J. Cheon, K. J. Yoon, W. H. Chang, and Y.-H. Kim, “Effects of dual transcranial direct current stimulation for aphasia in chronic stroke patients,” Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 603–610, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. R. Manenti, M. Petesi, M. Brambilla et al., “Efficacy of semantic-phonological treatment combined with tDCS for verb retrieval in a patient with aphasia,” Neurocase, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 109–119, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. V. Costa, G. Giglia, F. Brighina, S. Indovino, and B. Fierro, “Ipsilesional and contralesional regions participate in the improvement of poststroke aphasia: a transcranial direct current stimulation study,” Neurocase, vol. 21, no. 4, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. Z. Cattaneo, A. Pisoni, and C. Papagno, “Transcranial direct current stimulation over Broca's region improves phonemic and semantic fluency in healthy individuals,” Neuroscience, vol. 183, pp. 64–70, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. A. Fertonani, S. Rosini, M. Cotelli, P. M. Rossini, and C. Miniussi, “Naming facilitation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 208, no. 2, pp. 311–318, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. V. Fiori, S. Cipollari, C. Caltagirone, and P. Marangolo, “‘If two witches would watch two watches, which witch would watch which watch?’ tDCS over the left frontal region modulates tongue twister repetition in healthy subjects,” Neuroscience, vol. 256, pp. 195–200, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. M. Meinzer, S. Jähnigen, D. A. Copland et al., “Transcranial direct current stimulation over multiple days improves learning and maintenance of a novel vocabulary,” Cortex, vol. 50, pp. 137–147, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. K. E. Polanowska, M. M. Leśniak, J. B. Seniów, W. Czepiel, and A. Członkowska, “Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in early rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke non-fluent aphasia: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot study,” Restorative Neurology & Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 761–771, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. Fridriksson, J. M. Baker, J. M. Whiteside et al., “Treating visual speech perception to improve speech production in nonfluent aphasia,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 853–858, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. H. Kim and D. L. Na, Korean Version Boston Naming Test, Hakjisa, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 1997.
  110. P. Mariën, B. Paghera, P. P. De Deyn, and L. A. Vignolo, “Adult crossed aphasia in dextrals revisited,” Cortex, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 41–74, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. B. Elsner, J. Kugler, M. Pohl, and J. Mehrholz, “Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for improving aphasia in patients after stroke,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 5, Article ID CD009760, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  112. A. Datta, V. Bansal, J. Diaz, J. Patel, D. Reato, and M. Bikson, “Gyri-precise head model of transcranial direct current stimulation: Improved spatial focality using a ring electrode versus conventional rectangular pad,” Brain Stimulation, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 201.e1–207.e1, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. K. Sage, C. Snell, and M. A. Lambon Ralph, “How intensive does anomia therapy for people with aphasia need to be?” Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 26–41, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. W. Best, A. Greenwood, J. Grassly, R. Herbert, J. Hickin, and D. Howard, “Aphasia rehabilitation: does generalisation from anomia therapy occur and is it predictable? A case series study,” Cortex, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 2345–2357, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. L. Nickels and D. Howard, “Aphasic naming: what matters?” Neuropsychologia, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1281–1303, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. C. Rossiter and W. Best, “‘Penguins don't fly’: an investigation into the effect of typicality on picture naming in people with aphasia,” Aphasiology, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 784–798, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. M. Carragher, P. Conroy, K. Sage, and R. Wilkinson, “Can therapy change the everyday conversations of people with aphasia? A review of the literature and future directions,” Aphasiology, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 895–916, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  118. R. Herbert, J. Hickin, D. Howard, F. Osborne, and W. Best, “Do picture-naming tests provide a valid assessment of lexical retrieval in conversation in aphasia?” Aphasiology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 184–203, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus