Table 3: Observational practice effects and tDCS effects on sequence-specific learning.

IIIIIIIV
Observational training effect (trained versus untrained performance)Primary resultsSecondary results
tDCS effect (group difference)tDCS effect (group difference), accounting for accuracy during training sessions
ShamActive

Initiation timePostt(22) = 2.65, , B0 = 13%, dz = 0.54t(24) = 4.02, , B0 = 24%, dz = 0.79t(47) = 1.50, , d = 0.44, anecdotal evidence against the effect (BF10/BF01 = 0.70/1.43)t(46) = 2.48, , d = 0.73, anecdotal evidence for the effect (BF10/BF01 = 2.41/0.41)
Ret.t(22) = 3.21, , B0 = 21%, dz = 0.66t(24) = 2.87, , B0 = 21%, dz = 0.56t(47) = 0.05, , d = 0.01, substantial evidence against the effect (BF10/BF01 = 0.29/3.49)t(46) = 0.01, , d = 0, substantial evidence against the effect (BF10/BF01 = 0.29/3.45)

Execution timePostt(22) = 5.02, , B0 = 15%, dz = 1.02t(24) = 4.75, , B0 = 14%, dz = 0.93t(47) = −0.37, , d = 0.11, substantial evidence against the effect (BF10/BF01 = 0.30/3.31)t(46) = −0.49, , d = 0.15, substantial evidence against the effect (BF10/BF01 = 0.31/3.20)
Ret.t(22) = 4.02, , B0 = 10%, dz = 0.82t(24) = 3.99, , B0 = 10%, dz = 0.78t(47) = −0.06, , d = 0.02, substantial evidence against the effect (BF10/BF01 = 0.28/3.55)t(46) = −0.02, , d = 0.01, substantial evidence against the effect (BF10/BF01 = 0.29/3.43)

Error ratePostt(22) = 2.56, , B0 = 7%, dz = 0.52t(24) = 2.89, , B0 = 9%, dz = 0.57t(47) = 0.47, , d = 0.14, substantial evidence against the effect (BF10/BF01 = 0.31/3.20)t(46) = 0.20, , d = 0.06, substantial evidence against the effect (BF10/BF01 = 0.31/3.28)
Ret.t(22) = 2.99, , B0 = 7%, dz = 0.61t(24) = 1.45, , B0 = 4%, dz = 0.28t(47) = −0.81, , d = 0.24, anecdotal evidence against the effect (BF10/BF01 = 0.37/2.71)t(46) = −1.05, , d = 0.31, anecdotal evidence against the effect (BF10/BF01 = 0.44/2.27)

Items in italics highlight nonsignificant effects. All values reported reflect one-tailed tests as we had directional predictions for the influence of training and stimulation on our performance measures. Results are uncorrected for multiple comparisons.