Neural Plasticity / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Neurorehabilitation in Parkinson’s Disease: A Critical Review of Cognitive Rehabilitation Effects on Cognition and Brain

Table 2

Summary of randomized controlled trials in assessing brain changes related to cognitive rehabilitation programs in PD.

AuthorsMRI sampleH&YCognitive rehabilitation programMRI acquisition/preprocessing/analysisMRI statistical analysisMRI resultsCorrelation with cognitive measuresLimitations/risk of bias

Cerasa et al. [33]15 PD
8 CR
7 ACG
1–3RehaCom computer program
Training:
(i) Attention
(ii) Information processing
Resting-state fMRI/ICA in FSL/FC analysisANOVA (group × time)
Region of interests
Dorsolateral PFC
Ventrolateral PFC
ACC
Sup + inf parietal left
Caudate
Cerebellum
Increased functional activity:
(i) Left dorsolateral PFC
(executive network)
(ii) Superior parietal left
(attention network)
Small sample size
Only one type of MRI acquisition

Díez-Cirarda et al. [38] (cognitive results in [31])30 PD
15 CR
15 ACG
1–3“REHACOP” program
Training:
(i) Attention
(ii) Memory
(iii) Language
(iv) EF
(v) Social cognition
Resting-state fMRI/ROI-to-ROI approach in CONN toolboxANOVA (group × time)
Paired -test
Whole brain
Increased FC between BA9L-BA20L and BA9R-BA20LYesSmall sample size and reduced at long-term follow-up
Memory fMRI paradigm results at FWE uncorrected
Memory fMRI paradigm/model-based approach in SPMIncreased brain activation
Learning task: left frontal inferior lobe
Increased brain activation
Memory task: left middle temporal lobe
Diffusion weighted/TBSS in FSL
T1 weighted/VBM in FSL

ACC = anterior cingulate cortex; ACG = active control group; BA = Brodmann area; CR = cognitive rehabilitation; EF = executive functions; FC = functional connectivity; fMRI = functional magnetic resonance imaging; FSL = FMRIB Software Library; H&Y = Hoehn and Yahr; ICA = independent component analysis; MRI = magnetic resonance image; PD = Parkinson’s disease; PFC = prefrontal cortex; TBSS = tract-based spatial statistics; VBM = voxel-based morphometry.