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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2018, Article ID 5735789, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5735789
Review Article

Proteolytic Remodeling of Perineuronal Nets: Effects on Synaptic Plasticity and Neuronal Population Dynamics

1Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3800 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA
2Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3800 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA
3Department of Pharmacology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3800 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Katherine Conant; ude.nwotegroeg@48cek

Received 17 August 2017; Revised 3 November 2017; Accepted 27 November 2017; Published 4 February 2018

Academic Editor: Tomasz Wójtowicz

Copyright © 2018 P. Lorenzo Bozzelli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The perineuronal net (PNN) represents a lattice-like structure that is prominently expressed along the soma and proximal dendrites of parvalbumin- (PV-) positive interneurons in varied brain regions including the cortex and hippocampus. It is thus apposed to sites at which PV neurons receive synaptic input. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in PNN integrity may affect glutamatergic input to PV interneurons, a population that is critical for the expression of synchronous neuronal population discharges that occur with gamma oscillations and sharp-wave ripples. The present review is focused on the composition of PNNs, posttranslation modulation of PNN components by sulfation and proteolysis, PNN alterations in disease, and potential effects of PNN remodeling on neuronal plasticity at the single-cell and population level.