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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2018, Article ID 6574178, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6574178
Research Article

Effects of Time-Compressed Speech Training on Multiple Functional and Structural Neural Mechanisms Involving the Left Superior Temporal Gyrus

1Faculty of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
2Division of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
3Division of Medical Neuroimaging Analysis, Department of Community Medical Supports, Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
4Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
5Department of Functional Brain Imaging, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
6Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan
7Division of Clinical Research, Medical-Industry Translational Research Center, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, Japan
8Human and Social Response Research Division, International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
9Smart Ageing International Research Center, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
10Department of Psychiatry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
11School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Hikaru Takeuchi; pj.ca.ukohot.cadi@ihekat

Received 7 March 2017; Accepted 1 November 2017; Published 20 February 2018

Academic Editor: J. Michael Wyss

Copyright © 2018 Tsukasa Maruyama et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Time-compressed speech is an artificial form of rapidly presented speech. Training with time-compressed speech (TCSSL) in a second language leads to adaptation toward TCSSL. Here, we newly investigated the effects of 4 weeks of training with TCSSL on diverse cognitive functions and neural systems using the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) with the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), fractional anisotropy (FA), and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of young adults by magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant differences in change of performance of measures of cognitive functions or second language skills after training with TCSSL compared with that of the active control group. However, compared with the active control group, training with TCSSL was associated with increased fALFF, RSFC, and FA and decreased rGMV involving areas in the left STG. These results lacked evidence of a far transfer effect of time-compressed speech training on a wide range of cognitive functions and second language skills in young adults. However, these results demonstrated effects of time-compressed speech training on gray and white matter structures as well as on resting-state intrinsic activity and connectivity involving the left STG, which plays a key role in listening comprehension.