Neural Plasticity / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Effects of Time-Compressed Speech Training on Multiple Functional and Structural Neural Mechanisms Involving the Left Superior Temporal Gyrus

Table 2

Pre- and posttest scores for psychological measures (mean ± standard error of mean).

Training with TCSSL (experimental group)bActive controlPlanned contrast valuecEffect size (d)d
Pretest scoresPosttest scoresPretest scoresPosttest scores

English listening test (score)268.1 ± 53.46252.24 ± 53.2283.93 ± 47.25269.64 ± 46.54Experimental > control0.884−8.33 × 10−3
English reading test (score)232.93 ± 57.98221.72 ± 55.04230.00 ± 60.29238.7 ± 54.65Experimental > control0.938−0.0282
RAPMa (score)26.61 ± 4.4329.24 ± 4.1628.79 ± 4.8031.03 ± 4.67Experimental > control0.576−2.09 × 10−4
Digit span (score)37.17 ± 7.1637.72 ± 8.6938.90 ± 7.4938.76 ± 7.10Experimental > control0.4173.85 × 10−4
Listening span test (score)12.79 ± 2.6713.38 ± 3.0312.68 ± 3.3412.96 ± 2.86Experimental > control0.3113.86 × 10−3
Word-color task (items)67.69 ± 9.0475.90 ± 8.2272.28 ± 6.2177.17 ± 6.53Experimental > control0.2366.36 × 10−3
Color-word task (items)52.97 ± 5.2653.83 ± 7.4953.48 ± 5.6555.52 ± 6.94Experimental > control0.840−6.05 × 10−3
Reverse Stroop task (items)60.90 ± 6.0663.69 ± 7.4262.76 ± 5.5865.34 ± 8.13Two tailed0.8931.47 × 10−4
Stroop task (items)48.72 ± 6.7551.38 ± 7.1451.76 ± 6.5253.69 ± 7.14Two tailed0.6888.53 × 10−4
Simple arithmetic (items)31.93 ± 5.1532.45 ± 6.1732.52 ± 5.1432.43 ± 4.54Experimental > control0.2602.38 × 10−3
Complex arithmetic (items)7.55 ± 4.457.90 ± 4.486.72 ± 2.187.53 ± 2.14Experimental > control0.859−3.22 × 10−3
Japanese reading comprehension (items)14.31 ± 4.4218.38 ± 6.4213.66 ± 3.7618 ± 5.36Experimental > control0.633−8.63 × 10−4
SA creativity test (total grade)25.41 ± 6.1224.31 ± 5.2525.34 ± 5.5525.34 ± 6.00Two tailed0.379−9.01 × 10−3

aRaven’s advanced progressive matrices; btime-compressed speech training; cone-way analysis of covariance with test-retest differences in psychological measures as dependent variables and pretest scores of the psychological measures as covariates; deffect size estimates were calculated using Cohen’s d.