Table 2: COT effects on neuropsychological tests.

StudyDesignIntervention conditionsSampleCognitive measuresCognitive task results after training

Rosen et al. [14]RCT double-blindAuditory processing training
Computer-based activities
COT MCI CCI MCIRBANS scoresNS
RBANS immediate memory COT MCI > CCI MCI; Cohen’s

Belleville et al. [17]CGT single–blindMnemonic strategy trainingCOT HC COT MCIWord list recall MCI = HC,
MCI < HC,
Word list Immediate recall MCI = HC;
Performance on FMRI scan MCI = HC,

Hampstead et al. [18]Case controlFace name Association strategyCOT MCI TS USPost fMRI scan recognition task TS = US
TS > US
Reaction time TS

Hampstead et al. [20]RCT single blindObject location Association training Stimuli ExpositionCOT HC COT MCI CCI HC CCI MCIObject location Recognition task TS-COT group > CCI group,
TS-HC > MCI,
US-HC > MCI,

Balardin et al. [21]CGT single blindSemantic encoding strategy trainingCOT HC CCI MCIWord list free Recall HC > MCI
MCI = HC
SR > UR
Semantic cluster HC = MCI
Mean number of clusters MCI < HC

Lin et al. [15]RCT single blindVisual speed of processing and attention training Computer-based activitiesCOT MCI CCI MCIUFV-reaction time COT MCI > CCI MCI,
Working memory COT MCI > CCI MCI,
Cognitive control COT MCI > CCI MCI,
Verbal fluencyNS
IADL completion timeNS

De Marco et al. [16]RCT single blindCognitive training Social engagementCOT MCI CCI MCICCRINS

RCT: randomized controlled trial; CGT: controlled group trial; COT: cognitive oriented treatment; CCI: control condition intervention; MCI: mild cognitive impairment; HC: healthy controls; TS: trained stimulus; US: untrained stimulus; SR: semantic related; UR: unrelated; UVF: used field of view; IADLs: instrumental activities of daily living; CCRI: cognitive change ratio index; p: p values; η2: eta-squared; η2: partial eta-squared; NS: not significant results.