Koumine Attenuates Neuroglia Activation and Inflammatory Response to Neuropathic Pain
Effects of single and repeated subcutaneous administration of koumine (KM) on mechanical allodynia in rats with CCI neuropathy. (a) Koumine (0.28, 7 mg/kg) or vehicle (NS: normal saline) was subcutaneously administered once per day for 7 consecutive days from postoperative day 3. The time course of mechanical withdrawal latency with koumine showed that repeated subcutaneous injections of koumine reduced the pain behavior induced by CCI neuropathy. Data indicate the withdrawal threshold for the ipsilateral paw as mean ± SEM ( per group). Response of the contralateral hind paw remained unchanged throughout the procedure. versus the sham group; , versus the vehicle control group, two-way repeated-measures ANOVA followed by LSD or Dunnett’s T3 test for each time point. (b) Koumine (0.28, 1.4, and 7 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered s.c. on postoperative day 9. The mechanical threshold was measured 60 min after drug administration, on the morning of postoperative day 9 for each rat. Data indicate the withdrawal threshold for the ipsilateral paw as mean ± SEM ( per group). versus the sham group; , versus the vehicle control group (CCI + NS), using separate one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni or Dunnett’s T3 test for each group.